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Religion in Scotland. The Background. One of the constituent countries making up the United Kingdom. Joined with England in 1707 to become Great Britain. This caused religious tensions between differing branches of the Church. 5 million people live in Scotland
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The Background... • One of the constituent countries making up the United Kingdom. • Joined with England in 1707 to become Great Britain. • This caused religious tensions between differing branches of the Church. • 5 million people live in Scotland • 60 million people live in the United Kingdom • There are 6 different notable religions
The Different Faiths • CHRISTIANITY Protestantism - 2.5 million50% Catholicism – 1.1 million22% • ISLAM – 42 thousand 0.8% • JUDAISM – 6 thousand 0.1% • BUDDHISM – 6 thousand 0.1% • HINDUISM – 6 thousand 0.1% • SIKHISM – 6 thousand 0.1% • No Religion – 1.4 million 26.8%
Christianity - Catholicism • Catholicism probably came to Scotland around the second century, and was firmly established by the sixth and seventh centuries. However, until the eleventh century, the relationship between the Church in Scotland and the Papacy is unclear. The Scottish Celtic Church had marked differences from the rest of Western Europe. However, it was the reforms of the eleventh century that the Scottish Church became an integral part of the Catholic communion. • That remained the picture until the Scottish Reformation in the early sixteen century, when the Church in Scotland broke with the papacyCurrently the senior bishop in Scotland is Cardinal Keith O’Brien, Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh
The Celtic Cross The symbol of Celtic Christianity
Island of Iona • Iona is an important place in the history of Christianity in Scotland. In 563 St Columba arrived from Ireland and it is from Iona he set about converting the pagan people of Scotland and much of northern England to Christianity.
The Reformation • The Reformation, led by John Knox, was Scotland’s break with the Papacy in Rome. It was encouraged by the opinion of many Scots that the Papacy was corrupt, as only those who gave substantial fianancial contributions were elevated into high positions in the Church. This led to the predominance of Protestantism in Scotland and what was to become Great Britain. It also resulted in Scotland becoming one of the first countries to have education provided for all. John Knox
Sectarianism • Between the Protestant communites and Catholic communities, mainly in Glasgow, there has been friction for hundreds of years. This sectarianism started when huge numers of Irish Catholics flocked to Scotland to work during the Industrial Revolution and has been fueled by the rivalry of Glasgow football teams – Rangers (Protestant) and Celtic (Catholic). It is now a crime to sing Sectarian songs and in recent years this has been greatly reduced and there are hopes that sectarianism will become less and less of a problem. This has also occured in Northern Ireland where the tensions are also decreasing rapidly due to the peace process that has been occuring for the last few years. Orange Order Protestant March
Christianity - Protestants • Protestantism had its roots in the Reformation. It is the main branch of Christianity in Scotland and over 50% of the population state it as their own religion, compared to the 22% of Catholics. The Church of Scotland is the main church – usually there are two or three in every town as well as a number of other branches of church including the Baptists, Methodists and Anglicans. Special Communions are celebrated on Christmas Day, Easter Sunday and various other times throughout the year A Protestant Church in Ardrossan
Inside the typical church... An organist who plays the music for hymns
Judaism Judaism is a truly ancient religion which has been practised for five and a half thousand years and is based on the belief of one universal God. Jews worship in synagogues. Jewish people must live their lives according to the ten commandments and certain dietary restricitions must be kept. The extent to which these laws are upheld will depend on the individual. However most Jews in the United Kingdom will feel intrinsically British and their lifestyle will reflect this.
Islam • Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity, but with only 0.8% of the population it is still only a very minor religion. Muslims originally came to live in Scotland in the early 1940s from Pakistan but more recently some have come from the Middle East. Muslims worship in mosques. At the heart of Islam is the belief that there is no God worthy of worship but the one universal God (Allah). The second is that his messenger is the prophet Mohammed. Islam has five pillars that represent the foundations of Islamic worship and action. Recently the Muslim community in Britain and other western countries are concerned with the Islamophobia brought on from terrorist attacks in New York and London and want to rectify this wrong image of Islam.
Hinduism • The Hindu tradition has no founder and is best understood as a group of closely connected religious traditions. Hindus believe in one God and worship that one God under many manifestations or images. Hindus frequently view systematic organisations with mistrust and so most religious activity is centred around the home. However there are temples and Sunday has become a day of communal worship for Hindus. Dharma is at the centre of Hinduism, it refers to the underlying order of the universe that is reflected in moral and ethical life
Sikhism The Sikh faith is a distinct religion revealed through the teachings of the 10 Gurus, the first of who was Guru Nanak, born in 1469. This makes Sikhism a very recent religion. Sikhs believe that there is one God, while being beyond human comprehension, God can be realised through contemplation and service. Sikhs worship in a Gurudwara meaning ‘House of God’ and everyone is welcome here as long as they abide by the code of discipline. Sikhs do not take alcohol or tobacco and many are vegetarian. A new Sikh temple is going to open in Glasgow this year. The New Sikh temple
Buddhism • Buddhism is based on the teachings of the Buddha Shakyamuni who lived in northern India about 2500 years ago. A Buddha is to be revered, not as a God, but as an example of how we should aspire to live our lives. Although it is particularly strong in northern India it is a worldwide religion. Schools were established in the West during the 20th century. This was the case in Scotland where we now have ten schools with several traditions represented. A notable celebration of Buddhism is Dharma Day which celebrate the first day of enlightenment. A Statue of Buddha
The Holy Isle • The Centre For World Peace is a Buddhist retreat on the Holy Isle just 14 miles offshore from Ardrossan. • It is owned by Samye Ling Buddhist Community who are part of a Tibetan Buddhist School. The Holy Isle