Download
psychology of prejudice and discrimination n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

382 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Individual Differences and Prejudice Prepared by S.SaterfieldWhitley & Kite, (2006) The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination

  2. Study of Individual Differences • Researchers began to study why people differ from one another and related to variable such as prejudice after World War II • Nazi Anti-Semitism • Holocaust • Individual differences theories of prejudice- • Authoritarian personality • Social dominance orientation • Empathy

  3. The Big 3 • Authoritarianism Personality • Fascism—political philosophy that those who hold power know what is best for society, people should do what their government tells them to do • Popular belief in the 1930’s • A personality type that is especially susceptible to unthinking obedience to authority

  4. The Big 3 Authoritarianism Personality -Nine characteristic patterns—5 related to prejudice -Ideologies—set attitudes and beliefs that predispose people to view the world in certain ways and to respond in ways consistent with those viewpoints -Rigid adherence to conventional thinking leads people to view the world in stereotypical terms

  5. The Big 3 • Authoritarianism Personal • 5 Characteristic patterns—related to prejudice • Conventionalism—rigid adherence to conventional, middle-class values • Authoritariansubmission—submissive uncritical attitude toward idealized moral authorities • Authoritarianaggression—tendency to be on the lookout for, and to condemn, reject, and punish people who violate conventional values • Stereotypy—The disposition to think in rigid categories • Projectivity—The disposition to believe that wild and dangerous things go on in the world: The projection outwards of unconscious emotional impulses.

  6. The Big 3 • Authoritarianism Personality • Right-wing authoritarianism—RWA • Set of attitudes rather than as a personality type • Tend to be: • Mentally inflexible • See the world in simple terms • Have a high need for closure • Not interested in experiencing new things • Place a high value on security • Self-righteous

  7. The Big 3 • Authoritarianism Personality • Right-wing authoritarianism—RWA • Three Clusters of attitudes: • Authoritariansubmission—high degree of submission to authorities who are perceived to be established and legitimate in society • Authoritarianaggression—general aggressiveness, directed against various persona, that is perceived to be sanctioned by established authorities • Conventionalism—high degree of adherence to social conventions that are perceived to be endorsed by society and established authorities.

  8. The Big 3 Social Dominance Orientation—SDO Individual difference variable that reflects “the extent to which one desires that one’s in-group dominate and be superior to out-groups” Reflects the belief that one’s group ought to be at the top of societal ladder and that other groups ought to be on the bottom Opposition to equality reflects belief that group on bottom ought to stay there

  9. The Big 3 • Social Dominance Orientations • Concept of legitimizing myths—sets of attitudes and beliefs that people used to justify their dominant position in society • Belief that groups they identify with (racial, ethnic, professional, socioeconomic status) should have a superior position in society and control over resources

  10. The Big 3 • Social Dominance Orientations/Prejudice • Motivational effect of social dominance orientation • Personal Characteristics: • Competitive juggle characteristics • Ruthless and amoral • Winning is everything • Tough-minded • Low in empathy, sympathy and benevolence

  11. The Big 3 • Social Dominance Orientations/Prejudice • Legitimizingmyths—set of attitudes and beliefs that people high in SDO can use to justify their dominant position in society • Group stereotyping—used to denying equality to other groups • Endorse stereotypes of outgroups, especially negative ones • Tend to stereotype to a greater extent than other people • Use stereotypes to justify their prejudices

  12. The Big 3 • Social Dominance Orientations and Authoritarianism • Dominance over outgroups regardless of the views of ingroup authority figures • Focus on relations between groups • Stronger group identity motivates people to make stronger distinctions between their group and others • Focus on quashing competition for resources from other groups • Maintaining ingroup’s dominance in society

  13. The Big 3 • Empathy—’an other-oriented emotional response congruent with another’s perceived welfare • Affect prejudice through a three-step process: • Adopting the perspective of a member of a stigmatized group • Lead to perception of increased valuing of this individual’s welfare • Assuming that this individual’s group membership is a salient component of his or her plight

  14. The Big 3 • Empathy— • Empathic feelings include sympathy, compassion, tenderness—an individual difference variable • Perspective taking—tendency to spontaneously adopt psychological point of view of others in every day life • Empathic concern—tendencyto experience feelings ofsympathy and compassion for unfortunate others • Personaldistress—tendency to experience distress and discomfort in response to extreme distress in others

  15. The Big 3 • Empathy— • Oriented emotional response congruent with another’s perceived welfare • Affect prejudice through a three-step process: • Adopting the perspective of a member of a stigmatized group • Lead to perception of increased valuing of this individual’s welfare • Assuming that this individual’s group membership is a salient component of his or her plight

  16. The Self • Our awareness of ourselves as living beings who interact with the world and the people in it. • Our beliefs about what we are like, our characteristic behavior, or abilities and shortcomings • Our evaluation of those characteristics as good or bad, positive or negative

  17. The Self • Theorist relate the self to prejudice— • People low in self-esteem use prejudice to boost their self-images by looking down on others • People respond to threats to self-esteem with prejudice as a way of warding off the threat • Intergroup anxiety—feeling of discomfort while interacting with or anticipating an interaction with members of outgroups

  18. The Self • Self-Esteem refers to people’s evaluation of their personal characteristics and behavioral patterns • Self-enhancement: looking down on others might make one feel better about oneself • Self-protection—if one’s self-esteem is threatened, looking down on others might again made one feel better about oneself

  19. The Self Intergroup anxiety—the feelings of discomfort many people experience when interacting with, or anticipating and interaction with members of other groups Relates to minority group members’ attitudes toward the majority group as well as majority group members’ attitudes toward minority groups/

  20. Personal Values Values Orientations Individualism—values emphasizing importance of self-reliance Egalitarianism—emphasizes the importance of all people being treated equally and fairly

  21. Personal Values • Perceived Values Differences • Values dissimilarity • symbolic beliefs • symbolic threats • Family values • Terror management theory

  22. Social Ideologies • Ideologies—set attitudes and beliefs that predispose people to view the world in certain ways and to respond in ways consistent with those viewpoints • Religion • Religious involvement • Intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation • Religious fundamentalism

  23. Social Ideologies • Political Orientation • Conservatism • Liberalism • Social policy attitudes