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Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction

Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction

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Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction

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  1. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction A Guide with Resources for Content Area Teachers By Christine M. Theroux Theroux 2012

  2. Use this Notes Page to Collect and Organize Ideas Theroux 2012 Writing and/or reading lessons I would like to develop/co-teach/assess with Christine: Ideas with which Christine and/or the librarian could support: • Vocabulary knowledge • General knowledge about topic • Familiarity of text structure • Comprehension and monitoring strategies Other:

  3. Why is Literacy Instruction Necessary in Content Area Classrooms? • Middle and high school students typically do not have reading instruction after 6th grade (Alexander & Fox, 2011). • Text changes through the grades, becoming more demanding in their length and complexity. • Adolescents usually find texts challenging due to lack of: • Vocabulary knowledge • General knowledge about topic • Familiarity of text structure • Comprehension and monitoring strategies to help them understand what they are reading (Lee & Spratley, 2010). Theroux 2012

  4. What Tier 1 Literacy Instruction Should Look Like • Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction • WHY? It has been proven more effective in helping students increase comprehension of text rather than teaching reading strategies in isolation. • Increased Opportunities to Read Content Area Text • WHY? Like when playing an instrument or a sport, the more students practice reading, the better they get---increasing speed and comprehension. • Differentiate Reading Materials • WHY? It helps students access content. • Assess Literacy Progress • WHY? It helps guide instruction and determines if students require a more intensive intervention. Theroux 2012

  5. 1. Discipline-Specific Strategy InstructionWhat Is It? • Teaching how to read/write in the discipline vs. general reading skills • Looking at how experts use literacy in the field and then applying it to content area classrooms • Using the commonly applied reading and thinking strategies in different ways across disciplines • It is important for teachers to: • Have a clear understanding how texts are being used in their classroom • Be able to demonstrate how to use it • Seek assistance from the literacy specialist and the librarian Theroux 2012

  6. Disciplinary Literacy vs Content Area Reading Key Topic is about … With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards, there are specific reading and writing standards for each content area that could present challenges for teachers. To meet this challenge, it will be important to understand differences between content area reading and disciplinary literacy, as well as how you can use a literacy specialist/coach to streamline the process of helping struggling readers access your content. Disciplinary literacy differs from content area reading in a number of ways, including: Nature of Skills Addressed Targeted Students Types of Texts Used The Role of Graphics Its Focus Important Details Important Details Important Details Important Details Important Details Content area reading often promotes reading plays, poems, novels, or short stories in content classes such as math, science and history. Disciplinary literacy focuses only on disciplinary text, where the use of language and grammar may differ dramatically from discipline to discipline. Disciplinary literacy strategies help students understand the language of chemistry when reading chemistry texts or the language of math in math textbooks. Content area reading tends to be used in more remedial settings. Disciplinary literacy for high school students needs to be more highly specific strategy, with the students understanding under what circumstance it should be used. Teaching struggling readers the literacy secrets of belonging in the science, math or literature communities is as beneficial for the students as it is appealing for the teacher. Content area reading often promotes general interpretive skills for gaining meaning from graphics or ignores graphics altogether. Disciplinary literacy identifies what is special about the role of graphics in different disciplines and aims to help students understand the kinds of information that can be obtained from different types of graphics. In some content areas, such as chemistry, graphics and text are of equal importance in understanding and learning material. Content area reading promotes the use of reading and writing to study and learn, where as disciplinary literacy focuses on how literacy is used to make meaning within a discipline. Content area reading focuses on reading skills that can apply to any reading assignment in any content area. Disciplinary literacy promotes specialized skills and activities targeted to specific content areas. A set of literacy skills that helps students learn chemistry might not be useful in literature or history. So What? (What’s important to understand about this?) Let me collaborate with you in “apprenticing” students to understand how to read in your discipline.

  7. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction Common strategies used across content areas: • Building specialized vocabulary • Building prior knowledge • Learning to deconstruct complex sentences • Using knowledge of text structures and genres • Mapping graphic and mathematical representations against explanations in text • Posing discipline relevant questions • Comparing claims and propositions across text and evaluating them Theroux 2012

  8. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction For example… ELA – Teach students how to use literary devices to interpret complex fictional texts Foreign Language – Model for students how to approach text in a different language using a step-by-step process Math – Show students how to read text with precision by teaching the importance of reading slowly and looking for specific meanings Science – Demonstrate how to transform information from one form to another History and Social Sciences – Illustrate how to evaluate sources and analyze evidence Theroux 2012

  9. 2. Increased Opportunities to Read Content Area Text Teachers of content are expected to: • Provide students with excessive opportunities to read content area text • Librarians can assist with finding a variety of texts that are reading level appropriate and interesting. • Demonstrate how to apply literacy strategies for the various types • Afford students multiple opportunities to independently struggle with text and apply disciplinary literacy strategies • A literacy specialist can help with devising ways of demonstrating and supporting students in their independent practice Theroux 2012

  10. 3. Differentiate Reading Materials • The Common Core standards have the goal of students reading at or near grade level (Common Core Standards, 2010). • If students are not meeting the standard, reading materials need to be differentiated as often as possible. • Librarians are an amazing resource for finding appropriate leveled materials across all disciplines. Theroux 2012

  11. 3. Differentiate Reading Materials Teachers of content are recommended to assign the following types of text: • Challenging texts with associated explanations • Texts at the zone of proximal development • A balanced diet of texts at varying difficulty • Texts tailored to develop particular reading components When students are not reading at or near grade level, materials can be differentiated by assigning paired texts that use the same topic and different levels. • A librarian or literacy specialist can help. Theroux 2012

  12. 4. Assess Literacy Progress • Although content area teachers do not typically assess literacy progress, they can inform the literacy specialist of students having difficulty reading grade-appropriate text, who will then take the next appropriate steps in determining the student’s literacy needs • Cloze or Maze test • In the meantime, a librarian can help find grade-level appropriate text and books of interest. Theroux 2012

  13. Why is Literacy Instruction Necessary in Content Area Classrooms? • Middle and high school students typically do not have reading instruction after 6th grade (Alexander & Fox, 2011). • Provide the literacy specialist with the names of students who are struggling so that s/he may get the necessary assistance and instruction • Text changes through the grades, becoming more demanding in their length and complexity. • Librarians can assist with finding varied and appropriate leveled texts • Adolescents usually find texts challenging due to lack of: • Vocabulary knowledge • General knowledge about topic • Familiarity of text structure • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Meet the needs of students challenged in these areas by collaborating with the literacy specialist Theroux 2012

  14. Who Is Available to Support 1. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction • Literacy Specialist 2. Increased Opportunities to Read Content Area Text • Librarian • Literacy Specialist 3. Differentiate Reading Materials • Librarian 4. Assess Literacy Progress • Literacy Specialist Theroux 2012

  15. New Role as Literacy Specialist & Coach The literacy specialist and coach for both high schools who supports teachers with: Instruction, content planning, assessment and classroom management ANY activity or lesson involving reading or writing Transition to the Common Core’s emphasis on literacy across all content areas  Support could involve: Co-constructing lessons or Content Enhancement devices Co-teaching or modeling Providing professional development in Content Enhancement, Common Core, or other evidenced-based practices What is different about my position? Confidential, on-site resource who is licensed in Reading (All Levels), Special Needs (PreK-12), Administrator (9-12), and Elementary (1-6) 12 years of classroom experience with adolescents challenged in the areas of literacy and behavior, prior to being hired as the literacy coach in 2006 How I support is ultimately your choice and based on your level of comfort, ranging from assistance behind-the-scenes, all the way to teaching full segments of a class period. Theroux 2012

  16. Ideas for Reading With Literacy Specialist/Coach Theroux 2012 Find appropriate leveled text and/or ways to help students access information when text level is higher than their ability Address Common Core Literacy Standards without losing more time away from curriculum Incorporate a formal reading strategy into a lesson Devise ways of apprenticing students to read like a scientist, mathematician, literary critic, historian, health practitioner, artist, musician, mechanic, welder, chef, educator, etc. Determine in what areas your students need the most support

  17. Ideas for Writing With Literacy Specialist/Coach 1. Develop a lesson for a 1-3 paragraph Open Response or a 5-paragraph Essay: • Using an MCAS Prompt • In response to an article or video • After participating in an experiment or demonstration 2. Create a rubric for use with students that: • Promotes writing instruction that helps students meet the Common Core standards • Assesses what it is supposed to • Is easy and more efficient to correct 3. Modify past research assignments • Based on research gathered from the library databases, write a persuasive essay supporting your point of view. • Creationism vs. Darwinism. 4. Assist with providing student support during the writing or revision process Theroux 2012

  18. How the Librarian Supports Literacy • The school library media program promotes reading as a foundational skill for learning, personal growth and enjoyment. • A librarian addresses multiple literacies by: • Providing instruction that addresses information literacy, media literacy, visual literacy, and technology literacy • Promoting critical thinking by connecting learners with the world of information in multiple formats • Stimulating critical thinking through the use of learning activities that involve application, analysis, evaluation and creativity Theroux 2012

  19. Role of the Librarian Supporting your students and classroom: • Models reading strategies in formal and informal instruction • Collaborates with the teacher and literacy specialist to integrate reading strategies into lessons and units of instruction • Acquires and promotes current, high quality, high-interest collections of books and other reading resources in multiple formats Supporting the school community: • Develops initiatives to encourage and engage learners in reading, writing and listening for understanding and enjoyment • Fosters reading for various pursuits, including personal pleasure, knowledge and ideas • Creates an environment where independent reading is valued, promoted and encouraged • Motivates learners to read through read aloud, book-talking, displays, exposure to authors and other means • Creates opportunities to involve parents and other family members in reading Theroux 2012

  20. What Is Used in Your Content Area? WRITING • How do you help students organization information? • Outline or Frame READING • How do we build vocabulary knowledge? • How do we build general knowledge about topic? • How do we help students use knowledge of text structure and genres? • What comprehension and monitoring strategies do we use to understand reading? Theroux 2012

  21. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for ELA WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • Context Strategy • General knowledge about topic • Teach students how to use literary devices to interpret complex fictional texts • Activate and/or provide background knowledge of author/time period • Familiarity of text structure • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the causes, examples and/or consequences, etc. • Understand the different types, such as memoir, expository, poetry, etc. • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Frame with quotes/significance • Frame with themes, or a literary device, to identify during reading Theroux 2012

  22. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for History and Social Studies WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • General knowledge about topic • Activate and/or provide background knowledge • Familiarity of text structure • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the causes, effects, examples and/or consequences, etc. • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Show how to evaluate sources and analyze evidence • Demonstrate how to transform information from one form (primary and secondary sources) to another (visual and oral presentations) • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading Theroux 2012

  23. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for History and Social Studies READING History Memory Bubbles Strategy • Have students analyze key vocabulary or facts in terms of their connection to a problem/solution text frame by eliciting with questions, such as: • What is this fact? What does it have to do with problems discussed in the chapter? What does it have to do with changes highlighted in this chapter? • Students identify key terms or facts from a section they have read, but then asked to concentrate on information that focuses attention on key themes and ideas, NOT background details. • Place a transparency of a blank History Memory Bubble on the overhead projector and model using a key term. Besides identifying and providing a definition, ask students to consider the problems connected to this term and list them. • Partner students and have them work together to create History Memory Bubbles for the remainder of the terms, then share out with the entire class. Theroux 2012

  24. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for History and Social Studies READING Reading Like a Historian Strategy - SC3 • Alert students to what they should be doing before reading and model during whenever possible • Sourcing • Consider the document’s author and purpose for the creation • Look for the author/creator, date, publisher, type of document, purpose of document, etc. • Determine what the information tells us about the document, its context and possible bias • Contextualizing • Situate the primary source in place and time • Ask what is happening at the time of the creation of the document and how might the events influence this document? • Look at both micro and macro context • Close Reading • Read carefully and consider what the source says and the language used to say it • Look for powerful words, repetition, patterns in word use, and key phrases • Corroborating • Compare to other sources to support conclusions or identify disparities 24 Theroux 2012

  25. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for Foreign Language WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • General knowledge about topic • Activate and/or provide background knowledge • Familiarity of text structure • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the processes, examples and/or concepts, etc. • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Model for students how to approach text in a different language using a step-by-step process • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Frame with questions to answer, or concepts/definitions to identify during reading Theroux 2012

  26. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for Math WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • General knowledge about topic • Activate and/or provide background knowledge • Familiarity of text structure • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the processes, examples and/or concepts, etc. Theroux 2012

  27. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for Math READING • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Show students how to read text with precision by teaching the importance of reading slowly and looking for specific meanings. Often students glide over math text in an attempt to jump right into solving problems and relying on the teacher to clear up misunderstandings. • Use the Math Reading Keys strategy • Questioning the Author (QtQ): What does the author assume that I already know? What previous math concepts does this author expect me to remember? • Model how to read challenging text by reproducing pages on an overhead and have students follow in their textbooks as the teacher thinks aloud and highlights hidden knowledge • Hand out copies of the Math Reading Keys Bookmark • Partnered Reading • Encourage students to compile explanations and translations of key terms. Urge students to treat difficult math language the same way as they would a foreign language. Keep a classroom dictionary of key math terms. • Scan the Text, Read Slowly, Pause, Read Example Problems, Learn New Words, Re-Read • Mapping graphic and mathematical representations against explanations in text • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Use a Frame with any of these strategies to make it interactive 27 Theroux 2012

  28. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for Science WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • General knowledge about topic • Activate and/or provide background knowledge • Familiarity of text structure • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the causes, effects, examples, processes, and/or concepts, etc. • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Demonstrate how to transform information from one form to another • Mapping graphic and mathematical representations against explanations in text • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading Theroux 2012

  29. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for P.E. & Health, Child Development and Culinary WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • General knowledge about topic • Activate and/or provide background knowledge • Familiarity of text structure • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the causes, effects, examples and/or consequences, etc. • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Show how to evaluate sources and analyze evidence • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading Theroux 2012

  30. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for CTE WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • General knowledge about topic • Activate and/or provide background knowledge • Demonstrate how to transform information from one form to another • Familiarity of text structure • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the causes, effects, examples, processes, concepts and/or consequences, etc. • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading Theroux 2012

  31. Discipline-Specific Strategy Instruction for Fine Arts WRITING • Organization of information • Outline or Frame READING • Vocabulary knowledge • LINC • General knowledge about topic • Activate and/or provide background knowledge • Demonstrate how to transform information from one form to another • Familiarity of text structure • When reading articles about art or music, what should students be aware of and look for? • Read with them to help them use text structure as clues and graphic organizers as means of tracking and understanding the causes, effects, examples, processes, and/or concepts, etc. • Comprehension and monitoring strategies • Pose discipline relevant questions before reading • Compare claims and propositions across text and evaluate them • Frame with concepts or definitions to identify during reading Theroux 2012