Land Application of Food Process/Rinse Water California League of Food Processors Brown and Caldwell Kennedy/Jenks Consultants
Manual of Good Practice for Land Application of Food Processing/Rinse Water Rob Neenan Director of Regulatory Affairs California League of Food Processors
Background • CLFP, in conjunction with Brown and Caldwell and Kennedy-Jenks developed the first Manual in 2002 for fruit and vegetable processors. • The objective was to provide a comprehensive science-based guide to processors and consultants. • RWQCB staff expressed some concerns about several elements of the 2002 Manual, including text regarding salinity, source control, and BOD loading rates. • CLFP recognized the need to address concerns and obtain a common agreement as to what should be expected/required of application sites. • In 2006 CLFP collected financial contributions from members to revise the document.
2006 – 2007 Manual Revision Project Objectives • Provide detailed technical guidance to industry based on the best available science. • Encourage implementation of best practices. • Promote clear and consistent risk-based regulatory requirements. • Improve the level of communication and cooperation between processors and Board staff. • Coordinate CLFP efforts with other industry wastewater research initiatives. • Identify areas where further research would be useful.
Project ParticipantsCLFP Consultants and Working Group Consultants: • Brown & Caldwell: Rob Beggs, Ron Crites • Kennedy-Jenks: Sharon Melmon, Gary Carlton, Bob Chrobak Steering Committee: • RWQCB Staff: Pamela Creedon, Wendy Wyels, Bert Van Voris, Jo Anne Kipps • State Water Board: Wayne Verrill • Food Processors: Tim Ruby, Tim Durham, Ray Medeiros, Dennis Tristao, Ben Hall, Doug Langum • Others: Paula Hansen, Dan Burgard, Troy Elliott, Matt Wheeler, Burt Fleischer
Project Timeline • Formation of Manual working group—March 2006 • First meeting of working group—May, 2006 • Subcommittee meetings– June to October, 2006 • Oct. 2006—first draft completed • Oct – Jan 07 review of the draft document • February 27, 2007 workshop • Spring 2007--Manual presented to RWQCB for adoption as a guidance/reference document (but not a regulatory document).
Next Steps • Present the document to the Regional Board • Distribute the document to industry • Possible annual training classes • Continue to pursue funding for additional research
Introduction Beneficial Reuse Regulatory Process Water Site Characteristics Crops and Climate Loading Rates Salinity Control Distribution Monitoring Research Needs Examples Appendices Manual Contents
Appendix Material • Glossary • Anti-Degradation Policy • Form 200 and Information Needs • Monitoring Wells • Soil Evaluation • Groundwater Transport • Measuring Salinity and Organics
Subcommittees • Development of a Waiver • BOD Loading Rate • Point of Compliance • Soil Monitoring
Waiver Subcommittee • Rob Beggs • Dan Burgard • Bob Chrobak • Wendy Wyels
BOD Subcommittee • Bob Chrobak • Ron Crites • Troy Elliott • Jo Anne Kipps • Tim Ruby • Wayne Verrill
Point of Compliance • Rob Beggs • Dan Burgard • Gary Carlton • Tim Durham • Burt Fleischer • Bill Jennings • Bert Van Voris • Matt Wheeler
Soil Monitoring • Rob Beggs • Dan Burgard • Wayne Verrill
California Framework • Porter Cologne Act • Cannot impact beneficial uses of GW • Basin plans • Define beneficial uses for each region • Anti-degradation policy • GW protection beyond beneficial uses • Best Practicable Treatment and Control
Best Practicable Treatment and Control • Show progress by: • Comparing process water treatment and control options • Segregating high-strength wastes • Demonstrating source reduction
Waste Discharge Requirements • Submit Report of Waste Discharge in advance • ROWD defines planned operations and wastewater management strategy • ROWD includes • Site and facility description • Water balance • Cropping plan • Monitoring plan
Waiver Programs • Existing waivers • Small processors and wineries • Ag commodity waste • Non-toxic industrial waste (soil amendment) • Potential low-threat waiver • Low constituent loading • Appropriate management • Lowest “relative risk” category in Manual
Potentially Limiting Constituents • Nitrogen • Organics • Salinity
Nitrogen • Process water typically contains organic N and ammonium • Converted to nitrate in moist, well-aerated soil • Plants take up nitrate and ammonium • Nitrate may be leached from soil or lost to denitrification
Measurement of Nitrogen • Analyze process water for: • Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) • Organic N + Ammonium (NH4+) • Nitrate (NO3-) • Ammonia (NH3) • Refer to Chapter 7 for guidance on evaluating nitrogen balance
Organics • Decaying plant/animal residue • Enhances soil humus and fertility, boosting crop production • Rapid aerobic decomposition can lead to anaerobic soil conditions • Must balance loading to crop demand
Measurement of Total Organics • Use 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test may overstate BOD • Total organic carbon (TOC) captures non-biodegradable fraction
Salinity • Sources may include supply water, processing, sanitation chemicals • Risk of leaching to groundwater if land application system is not well managed • Likely to be the limiting constituent for land application and cropping
Measurement of Process Water Salinity • Want to quantify only the minerals • Analyze for individual ions • Correlate sum of ions with fixed dissolved solids (FDS) • Use FDS x correction factor • Total dissolved solids (TDS) analysis is a sum of minerals and non-minerals
Irrigation Water Quality • Most crops tolerate irrigation water with EC of 0 to 1 dS/M • Yield losses occur at EC of >3 dS/M • Refer to Table 4-1 for Irrigation Quality Guidelines
Climatic Factors • Rainfall • Evapotranspiration (ET) • Temperature
Topographic Factors for Crop Irrigation Percent Slope Limitations • <2 Slight • 2-6 Moderate • 6-12 Severe • >12 Very Severe
Soil Characteristics • Soil texture • Soil depth • Infiltration rate • Soil chemistry
Soil Treatment Factors • Filtration – removal of suspended solids • Adsorption – removal of P, NH4,metals • Organic content – sustainable infiltration, adsorption, energy, fertility
Soil Infiltration • Infiltration rate • Available water holding capacity • Deep percolation • Depth of soil, > 2 ft • Depth to groundwater, > 2 ft during application season
Soil Chemistry • pH • Electrical conductivity (EC) • Cation exchange capacity (CEC) • Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) • Soil nutrients, N,P,K
Groundwater Quality • Preapplication backgound quality • Determine preapplication flow direction • Hydropunch versus permanent wells
Crop Water Use • Reference ET, Crop Coefficients • ETc = ETo·Kc • Pan ET can also be used to estimate ETo
Rooting Depth and N Loading • Rooting depth - Deeper roots provide more opportunity for nutrient uptake. • Matching N uptake with available N – difficult because of mineralization lag • Match annual N uptake rates, monitor soil nitrate, modify application timing if necessary.
Salt Uptake Apply nutrient and salt uptake for calculations in Chapters 7 and 12.
Development/Application of Risk Categories Objective: Encourage greater reuse with lower loading rates.
Loading-Rate Based Planning and Design • Nitrogen • Organic (BOD) • Salts • Others (hydraulic, TSS, specific ions, etc.)