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  1. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1:What is Biology? Unit 2:Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4:Genetics Unit 5:Change Through Time Unit 6:Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7:Plants Unit 8:Invertebrates Unit 9:Vertebrates Unit 10:The Human Body

  2. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1:Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: Ecology Chapter 2:Principles of Ecology Chapter 3:Communities and Biomes Chapter 4:Population Biology Chapter 5:Biological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3:The Life of a Cell Chapter 6:The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7:A View of the Cell Chapter 8:Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9:Energy in a Cell

  3. Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10:Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11:DNA and Genes Chapter 12:Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13:Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14:The History of Life Chapter 15:The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16:Primate Evolution Chapter 17:Organizing Life’s Diversity Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  4. Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18:Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19:Protists Chapter 20:Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21:What Is a Plant? Chapter 22:The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23:Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24:Reproduction in Plants Table of Contents – pages iv-v

  5. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25:What Is an Animal? Chapter 26:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27:Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28:Arthropods Chapter 29:Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates

  6. Table of Contents – pages iv-v Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30:Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31:Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32:Mammals Chapter 33:Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34:Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35:The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36:The Nervous System Chapter 37:Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38:Reproduction and Development Chapter 39:Immunity from Disease

  7. Unit Overview – pages 566-567 Plants What is a Plant? The Diversity of Plants Plant Structure and Function Reproduction in Plants

  8. Chapter Contents – page x Chapter 24Introduction: Reproduction in Plants 24.1:Life Cycles of Mosses, Ferns, and Conifers 24.1:Section Check 24.2:Flowers and Flowering 24.2:Section Check 24.3:The Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant 24.3:Section Check Chapter 24Summary Chapter 24Assessment

  9. Chapter Intro-page 632 What You’ll Learn You will compare and contrast the life cycles of mosses, ferns, and conifers. You will sequence the life cycle of a flowering plant. You will describe the characteristics of flowers, seeds and fruits.

  10. 24.1 Section Objectives – page 633 Section Objectives: • Review the steps of alternation of generations.

  11. 24.1 Section Objectives – page 633 Section Objectives: • Survey and identify methods of reproduction and the life cycles of mosses, ferns, and conifers.

  12. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Alternation of Generations • An alternation of generations consists of a sporophyte stage and a gametophyte stage. • All cells of a sporophyte are diploid. • Certain cells of a sporophyte undergo meiosis, which produces haploid spores.

  13. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Alternation of Generations • These spores undergo cell divisions and form a multicellular, haploid gametophyte.

  14. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Alternation of Generations • The female gamete is an egg and the male is a sperm. • When a sperm fertilizes an egg, a diploid zygote forms. This is sexual reproduction. • If the embryo develops to maturity, the cycle can begin again.

  15. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Alternation of Generations • This basic life cycle pattern is the same for most plants. However, there are many variations on this pattern within the plant kingdom. • Most people have never even seen the female gametophyte of a flowering plant. • Botanists usually refer to the bigger, more obvious plant as the dominant generation.

  16. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Alternation of Generations • The dominant generation lives longer and can survive independently of the other generation. Dominant generation

  17. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Asexual reproduction • Most plants also can reproduce asexually by a process called vegetative reproduction. • In this type of reproduction, new plants are produced from existing plant organs or parts of organs. • The new plants have the same genetic makeup as the original plant.

  18. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Asexual reproduction • The new plants have the same genetic makeup as the original plant.

  19. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Mosses • The gametophyte stage is the dominant generation in mosses. • A haploid moss spore can germinate and grow to form a protonema (proh tuh NEE muh). It is a small green filament of cells that can develop into the gametophyte.

  20. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Mosses Mitosis Developing sporophyte Sporophyte Zygote (2n) (2n) Sperm Gametophyte (n) Capsule Fertilization Meiosis SPOROPHYTE GENERATION Egg Capsule opens releasing spores 2n GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION n Germinating spores Male gametophyte (n) Female gametophyte (n) Protonema

  21. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Mosses • Some moss gametophytes also reproduce by vegetative reproduction. • They can break into pieces when dry and brittle then, when moisture returns, each piece can grow and form a protonema then a gametophyte.

  22. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Ferns • Unlike mosses, the dominant stage of the fern life cycle is the sporophyte stage. • The fern sporophyte includes the familiar fronds. • On the underside of some fronds are sori, which are clusters of sporangia.

  23. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Ferns • Meiosis occurs within the sporangia, producing haploid spores.

  24. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Ferns Prothallus • A spore can germinate to form a heart-shaped gametophyte called a prothallus Archegonium Antheridium • The prothallus produces both archegonia and antheridia on its surface.

  25. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Ferns • The flagellated sperm released by antheridia swim through a film of water to eggs in archegonia. If fertilization occurs, the diploid zygote can develop into the sporophyte. • Once the sporophyte produces green fronds, it can carry on photosynthesis and survive on its own.

  26. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Ferns Click image to view movie.

  27. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Ferns • The mature fern sporophyte consists of a rhizome from which roots and fronds grow. Fronds Rhizome Roots

  28. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 Life Cycle of Ferns Growing prothallus Prothallus Archegonium Spores (n) Antheridium Egg Rhizoids GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION Meiosis Sperm Sporangium n Fertilization Sorus SPOROPHYTE GENERATION Zygote 2n Fronds Rhizome Cell divisions Roots

  29. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers • The dominant stage in conifers is the sporophyte generation. • The adult conifer produces male and female cones on separate branches of one plant. • Cones contain spore-producing structures, or sporangia, on their scales.

  30. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers • Female cones, which are larger than the male cones, develop two ovules on the upper surface of each cone scale. • A megaspore is a female spore that eventually becomes the female gametophyte.

  31. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers • Male cones have sporangia that undergo meiosis to produce male spores called microspores. • Each microspore can develop into a male gametophyte, or pollen grain.

  32. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers • In conifers, pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the male cone to the female cone. Egg Pollen grain Micropyle

  33. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers • The opening of the ovule is called the micropyle (MI kruh pile). • The pollen grain adheres to a sticky drop of fluid that covers the micropyle. As the fluid evaporates, the pollen grain is drawn closer to the micropyle.

  34. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers • Although pollination has occurred, fertilization does not take place for at least a year. • As the pollen grain matures, it produces a pollen tube that grows through the micropyle and into the ovule.

  35. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers • A sperm nucleus from the male gametophyte moves through the pollen tube to the egg. • If fertilization occurs, a zygote forms. • A seed coat forms around the ovule as the mature seed is produced. Mature seed are released when the female cone opens.

  36. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers Female cone Ovule Megaspores Male cone Microspores Microspore mother cell Female gametophyte Adult sporophyte Male gametophyte (pollen grain) Young seedling Meiosis Two archegonia with egg cells SPOTOPHYTE GENERATION GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION 2n Seed n Fertilization Egg Seed coat Sperm nucleus Cotyledons Pollen grain Maturing pollen grain One egg is fertilized Stored food Embryo Micropyle

  37. Section 24.1 Summary – pages 633-640 The Life Cycle of Conifers Click image to view movie.

  38. Section 1.1 Check Question 1 Which of the following is NOT true of gemmae? (TX Obj 2; 4B, 8C, 10A, 10B TX Obj 3; 13A) A. They are an example of vegetative reproduction. B. They have the same genetic makeup as the original plant. C. They are diploid. D. They are structures of liverworts.

  39. Section 1.1 Check The answer is C. Gemmae are haploid.

  40. Section 1.2 Check TX Obj 3; 13A TX Obj 2; 4B, 8C, 10A, 10B, Question 2 Mitosis Developing sporophyte Sporophyte Zygote (2n) (2n) Sperm Gametophyte (n) Capsule Fertilization Meiosis SPOROPHYTE GENERATION Egg Capsule opens releasing spores 2n GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION n Germinating spores Male gametophyte (n) Female gametophyte (n) Protonema

  41. Section 1.2 Check This figure represents mosses because it reveals a dominant gametophyte generation and displays the presence of a protonema.

  42. Section 1.3 Check Question 3 A prothallus is a structure belonging to _______. (TX Obj 2; 4B, 8C, 10A, 10B TX Obj 3; 13A) A. ferns B. liverworts C. conifers D. mosses

  43. Section 1.3 Check The answer is A, ferns.

  44. 24.2 Section Objectives – page 641 Section Objectives: • Identify the organs of a flower. • Examine how photoperiodism influences flowering.

  45. Section 24.2 Summary – pages 641-645 What is a flower? • The process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants takes place in a flower, which is a complex structure made up of several organs.

  46. Section 24.2 Summary – pages 641-645 The structure of a flower • A flower’s structure is genetically determined and usually made up of four kinds of organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils.

  47. Section 24.2 Summary – pages 641-645 The structure of a flower • Petals are usually the colorful structures at the top of a flower stem. • The flower stem is called peduncle. • Sepals are usually leaf-like and encircle the peduncle below the petals.

  48. Section 24.2 Summary – pages 641-645 The structure of a flower • Inside the petals are the stamens. A stamen is the male reproductive organ of a flower. • At the tip of the stamen is the anther. The anther produces pollen that eventually contains sperm.

  49. Section 24.2 Summary – pages 641-645 The structure of a flower Stigma Petals Style Pistil Ovary Anther Stamen Filament Sepal Peduncle