role of young iranian expatriates in development of iran n.
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  1. ROLE OF YOUNG IRANIAN EXPATRIATES IN DEVELOPMENT OF IRAN FOCUS ON BAM Presentation by Baquer Namazi November 2005 Email: Websites: &

  2. The new universally accepted development paradigm fully acknowledges: • the vital necessity of people's participation and; • partnership of civil society, private sector and research institutions with governments in the process of local, national and international development.

  3. Comparative Advantages of NGOs: • Closer affinity with communities particularly the vulnerable • Higher commitment to humanitarian work • Credibility and legitimacy with target groups • Cost effectiveness and flexibility • Energy of volunteers • Ability to mobilize people's participation • Ability to engage committed professionals and scientists • Sustainability through communities • Have to be transparent and accountable • Professionalism

  4. Role of NGOs in Disaster Management Cycle of Response: • Preparedness • Immediate response • Relief and • Rehabilitation, recovery and development

  5. Important Role of NGOs in all Phases: • Acknowledging that the Government has key responsibility • Non-confrontational dialogue and advocacy to hold government and UN bodies accountable to their mandates.

  6. Some examples of partnership roles of NGOs Preparedness Phase • Knowledge and information development and sharing experiences, nationally and internationally, • Documenting previous disaster experiences and lessons learned and making it available in simple language to public, schools, etc • Cooperating with mandated agencies to sustain public awareness through IEC • Extending training for creation of professional skills among NGOs with potential for cooperation • Developing skills among volunteers of NGOs, especially youth NGOs • Networking and development of response plans

  7. Some examples of partnership roles of NGOs Immediate Response • Cooperating with mandated bodies and applying skills to assist in immediate response phase • Drawing on expertise of volunteers with professional skills • Undertaking participatory needs assessments, • Mobilizing communities and helping them get organized for self-help

  8. Some examples of partnership roles of NGOs Relief Phase • Cooperating in participatory needs assessments for relief phase, • Facilitating role of community organizations as key partners, • Ensuring that interventions are inclusive and no affected part of the population is left out, • Cooperating with communities and authorities to ensure transparency and keeping public informed • Assisting in proper flow of relief to the more needy groups

  9. Some examples of partnership roles of NGOs Rehabilitation, Recovery and Development Phase • Sustaining and strengthening partnerships with government, private sector and international stakeholders, • Facilitating community empowerment and involvement in all phases of planning, decision-making and programme management, • Networking locally, nationally and internationally, • Communications and information sharing (including virtual networking), • Focusing on interventions for deprived groups, • Creation of CSO knowledge and training centers.

  10. National Context of Iran for Disasters:Focus on Bam Iran is a vast disaster prone country. Major disasters are: • Earthquakes (every 5-7 years one major earthquake) • Floods • Population flows to Iran from neighboring countries caused by armed conflicts (Iran has hosted more than 2 million refugees for over 20 years)

  11. Earthquakes are the greatest disaster affecting Iran. • On December 856 AD an earthquake occurred in Dashte Damaghan (North-east Iran), which led to the death of 200,000 • In the year 893 AD (37 years later) in Ardebil 150,000 died • On 18th Nov. 1727 an earthquake in Tabriz killed 77,000 • In the year 1923 the Red Lion and Sun Society was created (now called the Red Crescent)

  12. Earthquakes are the greatest disaster affecting Iran. • On 1 May, 1929 an earthquake near Birjand (Khorassan) with a force 7.4 Richter scale killed 3,300 • On July 2, 1957 an earthquake around Tehran 7.4 Richter killed 1,200 • In the same year another earthquake in Ashtian (central Iran) 7.3 richter killed 1,100 • On 1 Sept. 1962 an earthquake in Boin Zahra, Qazvin 7.3 Richter led to death of 12,000

  13. Earthquakes are the greatest disaster affecting Iran. • On 31 August1968 and earthquake with 7.3 Richter in Tabas caused the death of 10,000 • On 10 April 1972 an earthquake in Busher with a force of 7.1 Richter killed 5,000 • On Sept. 1978 an earthquake in Tabas killed 25,000 • On 24 Nov. 1976 an earthquake in the North (border with former USSR) led to death of 5,000 • On 21 June 1990 an earthquake in Rudbar of Manjil (north Iran) 7.3 Richter led to the death of 40,000. This devastating earthquake in few seconds devastated nearly 27 cities and 1,870 hamlets

  14. National Structures • High level state structures have been created • Emergency Response Council Headed by Minister of Interior • After Bam earthquake High Level Disaster Preparedness Council created in office of President • The Councils are replicated at local levels headed by the Governor. No place for civil society in state structures.

  15. The Key National Bodies • The Office of the President and the Ministry of Interior • The Red Crescent Society • Disaster management units in the Armed Forces • Emam Khomeini Relief Committee • Ministries with key roles include Health and Medical Education, Roads and Transport, Housing and Urban Development, Social Welfare Organization, Communications, TV, etc.

  16. NGOs in Iran According to estimates Iran has more than 15,000 NGOs and charities. • Nearly 5,000 charities, • 3,000 youth NGOs, • 600 environment NGOs, • 500 women NGOs, • 60 NGOs engaged in human rights issues • and many NGOs working for children and other vulnerable groups. • None of the NGOs are focused on disaster management. • The youth engaged in NGOs and in Red crescent have great potential as volunteer force for disaster management.

  17. Constraints • Bureaucracies have robbed state structures of vitality and dynamism • None of the formal structures have recognized the role for NGOs • UN bodies, despite their mandates and declared policies until very recently neglected the partnership potentials of local NGOs • NGOs in Iran are not organized around the critical issue of disaster management. They lack skills and experience. • The traditional business communities support are not organized around systematic disaster management. They provide relief through the charities.

  18. Bam: • Earthquake measuring 6.5 Richter scale hits Bam on 26 Dec. 2003 • Over 30,000 reported dead and 85,000 homeless • City virtually ruined and all social and economic services totally disrupted • Arge (citadel) Bam, major historical and tourist site ruined.

  19. Vulnerability Maps

  20. The City of Bam: • Bam has 678 hamlets with inhabitants and 176 uninhabited hamlets. • population over 200,000, Bam city proper population 90,000. • 80 percent of the villages, 60 percent of Bam itself, and 60 percent of the buildings were destroyed • 120,000 people were directly affected by the earthquake. Over 50,000 were injured or stuck under the rubble. • Half the government staff, including teachers and health workers died.

  21. Responses • The people, the Government and the whole world responded • The borders were opened to all world relief organizations . • 75 rescue teams from different parts of the world including international NGOs (at the peak 80 international NGOs) set up a presence.

  22. Considerable chaos and mismanagement yet: • Breakout of diseases were prevented • water and electricity for most part of the city of Bam were restored. • Relief food supplies reached nearly all those who were in Bam. • UN (OCHA) mandated to help coordinate all the international teams. • A special camp was allocated for international aid workers. • Bam citizens not actively involved leading to loss of trust & disorder

  23. Local NGOs in Bam • 32 local NGOs from Tehran, Kerman and other provinces engaged in Bam • Many unsustainable coalitions were set up; recently a council involving most CSOs working in Bam has been formed for disaster preparedness (Shahab) • Working on the ground created a sense of solidarity. • The charities have been more active in the relief phase. • A number of health related NGOs have been working on rehabilitation of handicapped groups. • Local and international NGOs began partnering through own initiative and help of Hamyaran and Kerman NGO House

  24. Collaboration of local and international NGOs to assist Bam • Local and international NGOs each have comparative advantages • Alliances of the two can make impact on advocacy and innovation, and dealing better with sensitive issues. Based on many consultations key interventions defined for INGOs are: • transfer of knowledge, • undertake sustained capacity building through technical cooperation, • promote exchanges on good practices and • assist in piloting new and innovative approaches and models of locally appropriate good practices.

  25. Rapid Participatory Needs Assessment: • Highlighted the role of the people of Bam • Called for capacity enhancement of local NGOs through: • conducting training workshops based on participatory needs assessments; • holding exchange programs with countries that have best practices; • benefiting from international experts in enhancing local management capacity; • enhancing technical capacity of the Kerman NGO's House secretariat and its member organizations; and • benefiting from the talents, professional skills and commitment of international volunteers.

  26. Continued… • Identified need to pay special attention to neglected & vulnerable groups • Helped develop NGO programs in coordination with the government, international organizations and other partner stakeholders. • Identified the need for creating job opportunities, especially for low-income groups, • Called for projects toward environmental protection. • Required reconstruction programs with the participation of the people. • Called for mental health projects to address trauma.

  27. Continued… • Called for the mobilization of local and international financial resources to develop service providing centers, such as: • Recognized the need to cooperate with local and international scientific and civil institutions to better cope with future natural disasters • Recommended creation of a local CSO disaster management center. • schools; • health centers; • rehabilitation centers; and • social service centers emphasizing women, children and the youth.

  28. A Model of Partnership • A unique model of tripartite partnership developed involving Hamyran, a modern NGO Resource Center, the Kerman NGO House, headed by a traditional philanthropist and a German NGO, Malterser • The partnership involved local capacity building and collaboration of all partners • This cooperation resulted in the large inputs that came through the Kerman NGO House by local philanthropists, expatriate Iranians and several members of the international NGOs. • The money value of the support has exceeded $4 million.

  29. Local and INGO cooperation

  30. Continued…

  31. Challenges faced in Bam: • Role of Bam citizens neglected by Government and international organizations • Mismanagement and lack of coordination • Failure to disseminate information to the people resulted in a loss of credibility. • Many Tehran-based NGOs did not demonstrate spirit of strong team work to make impact. • Civil society, as well as the government, have not developed the necessary skills for disaster preparedness and response. • National plans for disaster management do not include a role for NGOs. • The positive environment for cooperation and involvement that facilitated the humanitarian relief is now being replaced by bureaucracy

  32. Goals: Ensure citizen participation and social inclusion through: • Utilizing opportunities created by the disaster, • Facilitating people’s participation in all phases of development, • Defining a clear role for civil society as key partner, • Encouraging more active engagement of expatriate Iranians • Promoting multi-stakeholder collaboration, • Enhancing the capacity of all partners.

  33. Goals: • Developing and implementing community-based programs for employment generation and social services • Establishing an efficient system for information dissemination • Encouraging transparency and accountability at all levels among governmental organizations and NGOs. • Drafting and applying a new nationally and internationally acceptable code of ethics.

  34. Future Activities: • Community/women empowerment through creation of community chests for employment generation and reaching marginal groups. • Continue with capacity development interventions with help of INGOs • Develop civil society disaster management entities and cooperate with SHAHAB • Facilitate creation of mechanisms for sustainable cooperation of local and international NGOs • Help with development and implementation of an NGO Partnership Plan of Action for Bam

  35. Role of expatriate young Iranians • Hold a follow-up consultation meeting in Bam • Bam as entry point for cooperation of committed, young Iranian professionals • Creating collaborative networks with younger generation in Iran through CSOs & Res. Inst. • Working together for change and a better Iran, through community-based action interventions • Providing a true picture of Iran to the world

  36. Let us all work together for the Reconstruction and Development of Bam Thank You.