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Teaching for Learning: An Evidence-Based Examination of Key Pedagogical Concepts

Teaching for Learning: An Evidence-Based Examination of Key Pedagogical Concepts

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Teaching for Learning: An Evidence-Based Examination of Key Pedagogical Concepts

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  1. Teaching for Learning: An Evidence-Based Examination of Key Pedagogical Concepts TODD ZAKRAJSEK, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR CENTER FOR FACULTY EXCELLENCE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA – CHAPEL HILL 919-966-1289 TODDZ@UNC.EDU 2012 Annual Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy February 8, 2012

  2. Design for Learning What is your anticipated outcome? How will you accomplish that outcome? How will you know you were successful?

  3. Learning Changes the Brain Raichle, Brain Briefiengs, May 1996. Society for Neuroscience.

  4. Long-Term Potentiation

  5. Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2009 Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence

  6.,396/,396/ Parents Of Nasal Learners Demand Odor-Based Curriculum March 15, 2000

  7. Basketball….

  8.,396/,396/ Learning should be as close to modality for expected recall as possible.

  9. Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education(Chickering & Gamson, 1996) • Contact between student and faculty • Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students • Uses active learning techniques • Prompt feedback • Time on task (motivation to learn) • Communicate high expectations • Respects diverse talents and ways of knowing

  10. Hake (1998)

  11. What behaviors illustrate or are good examples of something an unmotivated student might do?

  12. Attribution How do we describe the “cause” of behavior??? - Internal (dispositional) - External (situational)

  13. Attribution Power of Misattribution - Insomnia Gave pill and told side effect increased heart rate and anxiety - First Year Students Statistics on initial struggling Video of students

  14. Card passing What is one issue or concern you have with respect to your students and creating an effective learning environment?

  15. Body’s Reaction to Lecturing Bligh, 2000, What’s the Use of Lectures?2000, p.51; Hartley & Davies, 1978, Programmed Learning and Educational Technology:15:207-224.

  16. Lecture Breaks Increase Students’ Attention Bligh, What’s the Use of Lectures? 2000, p.51.

  17. “Every beginning instructor discovers sooner or later that his first lectures were incomprehensible because he was talking to himself, so to say, mindful only of his point of view. He realizes only gradually and with difficulty that it is not easy to place one’s self in the shoes of students who do not yet know about the subject matter of the course.” Piaget (1962)

  18. Recht & Leslie (1988) Good Readers Poor Readers 20 Items Correct 10 High Knowledge Low Knowledge

  19. Karpicke & Roediger, 2007 SSSS SSST STTT .80 .70 Proportion of ideas recalled .60 .50 .40 5 Minutes 1 Week Retention Interval For Final Test

  20. Learning is Hard Work Bjork & Linn, 2006 Desirable Difficulties spaced vs. massed study interleaving vs. blocked vary how material learned reduce feedback use tests as learning events

  21. Learners must be taught to take a metacognitive approach. Bransford, et al., How People Learn, 1999

  22. Types of CATs • Minute Paper (check understanding at end of class session) • Muddiest Point (check understanding at end of class session) • One-Sentence Summary (check understanding at end of class session) • Directed Paraphrasing (check understanding of a concept) • Lecture Checks (Mazur’s Technique) • Card Passing (very good for sensitive topics)

  23. Kennesaw Teaching Journals

  24. In what year was psychology founded as a science? A. 1812 B. 1853 C. 1879 D. 1902

  25. Selected References Bjork, R. A., & Linn, M. C. (2006, March). The Science of Learning and the Learning of Science: Introducing Desirable Difficulties. American Psychological Society Observer, 19, 29- 39.   Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.   Chickering, A., & Ehrmann, S. (1996). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin, October, 3-6.   Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A room with a viewpoint: Using normative appeals to motivate environmental conservation in a hotel setting. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 472-482.   Halpern, D. F. & Hakel, M.D. (2002). Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 89. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.   Karpicke, J.D., & Roediger, H.L. (2007). Repeated retrieval during learning is the key to long-term retention. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 151-162.

  26. Selected References Mueller, C.M. & Dweck, C.S. (1998). Intelligence praise can undermine motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 33-52. Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9 (3), 105-119. Available Online -   Recht, D.R., & Leslie, L. (1988). Effect of prior knowledge on good and poor readers’ memory of text. Journal of Educational Psychology,80, 16 – 20.   Wilson, T.D., Damiani, M. & Shelton, N. (2002). Improving the academic performance of college students with brief attributional interventions. In Joshua Aronson, Ed., Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education. (pp. 91-108). New York: Academic Press.