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Individual Behaviour, Values and Personality

Individual Behaviour, Values and Personality

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Individual Behaviour, Values and Personality

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  1. Individual Behaviour, Values and Personality

  2. Employee Engagement at ASB • New Zealand’s ASB Bank is making employee engagement a cornerstone of its business strategy to become a world-class organisation. Courtesy of ASB Bank Limited

  3. Employee Engagement Defined • The employee’s emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, ability to perform the job, clear understanding of the organisation’s vision and his/her specific role in that vision, and a belief that he/she has the resources to get the job done. Courtesy of ASB Bank Limited

  4. Role Perceptions Motivation Ability Situational Factors MARS Model of Individual Behaviour Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Individual Behaviourand Results

  5. Employee Motivation • Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behaviour • direction • intensity • persistence R M BAR A S

  6. Employee Ability • Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task • Competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance • Person  job matching • selecting • developing • redesigning R M BAR A S

  7. Employee Role Perceptions • Beliefs about what behaviour is required to achieve the desired results: • Understanding what tasks to perform • Understanding relative importance of tasks • Understanding preferredbehaviours to accomplish tasks R M BAR A S

  8. Situational Factors • Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behaviour • time • people • budget • work facilities R M BAR A S

  9. more Types of Behaviour in Organisations Task Performance • Goal-directed behaviours under the person’s control Organisational Citizenship • Performance beyond the required job duties

  10. Types of Behaviour in Organisations Counterproductive Work Behaviours • Voluntary behaviour that potentially harms the organisation Joining/staying with the Organisation • Goal-directed behaviours under the person’s control Maintaining Work Attendance • Attending work at required times

  11. Values in the Workplace • Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences • Define right or wrong, good or bad • Value system – hierarchy of values • Espoused vs. enacted values: • Espoused – the values we say we use and often think we use • Enacted – values we actually rely on to guide our decisions and actions

  12. Schwartz’s Values Model Self-transcendence Openness to change Conservation Self-enhancement

  13. Values Congruence at Coles Integrity -- Respect/recognition -- Passion for excellence–Working together • More than 2,300 Coles employees across all levels participated in 203 focus groups around the country. Their objective: to identify a set of values for Australia’s second-largest retailer that would be congruent with their personal values. Armen Dueschian/Newspix

  14. Values Congruence • Values congruence – where two or more entities have similar value systems • Problems with incongruence • Incompatible decisions • Lower satisfaction and commitment • Increased stress and turnover • Benefits of (some) incongruence • Better decision making (diverse values) • Enhanced problem definition • Prevents “corporate cults” Armen Dueschian/Newspix

  15. Individualism-Collectivism High Peru Italy Portugal Taiwan Nigeria PR China India Chile Hungary Collectivism Indonesia Hong Kong South Korea US/Canada Australia France New Zealand Japan Egypt Low Low High Individualism

  16. Power Distance High Power Distance Malaysia The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society. Venezuela Japan U.S. N.Z. Israel Low Power Distance

  17. Uncertainty Avoidance High U.A. Greece Japan The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). Italy Australia Singapore Low U.A.

  18. Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Japan The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing). China Australia France Chile Sweden Nurturing

  19. Three Ethical Principles Utilitarianism Greatest good for the greatest number of people Individual Rights Fundamental entitlementsin society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits

  20. Influences on Ethical Conduct • Moral intensity • Degree that issue demands ethical principles • Ethical sensitivity • Ability to recognise the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue • Situational influences • Competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behaviour

  21. Supporting Ethical Behaviour • Ethical code of conduct • Establishes standards of behaviour • Problem: Limited effect alone on ethical behaviour • Ethics training • Awareness and clarification of ethics code • Practice resolving ethical dilemmas • Ethics officers • Educate and counsel; hear about wrongdoing • Ethical leadership and culture • Demonstrate integrity and role model ethical conduct

  22. Defining Personality • Relatively stable pattern of behaviours and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioural tendencies.

  23. Extroversion Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Big Five Personality Dimensions Careful, dependable Courteous, caring Anxious, hostile Sensitive, flexible Outgoing, talkative

  24. Extroversion Introversion vs. Sensing Intuition vs. Thinking Feeling vs. Judging Perceiving vs. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

  25. Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring • Locus of control • Internals believe in their effort and ability • Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes • Self-monitoring personality • Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adapt your behaviour to that situation

  26. Holland’s Occupational Choice Theory • Career success depends on fit between the person and work environment. • Holland identifies six “themes” • Represent work environment and personality traits/interests • A person aligned mainly with one theme is highly differentiated. • A person has high consistency when preferences relate to adjacent themes.

  27. Chapter TwoExtras

  28. Long/Short-Term Orientation Long-Term Orientation China Japan The degree that people value thrift, savings and persistence (long term) versus past and present issues, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations (short term). Netherlands N.Z. Philippines Short-Term Orientation