And…cut! Private media, bias and how news effects public opinion.
Private vs. Public • How do Television networks get money to run their networks? • Through advertising. • Problem?? • How do public networks gain their money? • Donations • Pledge drives • PBS, and NPR. • Who owns what? • http://www.neatorama.com/2008/07/07/who-owns-what-on-television/
Can I have your attention please? • Networks have to gain large audiences • Larger audience = more profit • The Reporter’s role. • Search for sensational, odd stories • Expose corruption, or scandal • Follow Justin Bieber. • Long factual stories tend to score low. • Boring “talking heads”
Marauders Map? • Although reporters do track stories down, they are leaked stories often as well. • Watergate – investigative expose • President Clinton, Monica Lewinsky affair – leaked. • Why leak information? • Trial Balloon: information leaked to an audience to observe the reaction.
Under fire • For war stories now, and for global news, there are imbedded reporters. • Those who are imbedded in military units to observe wars and give first-hand accounts. • Why is it important to have reporters living abroad, and living in units?
Give your report • Newscasts now contain sound bites, accompanied by analysis of what has been said. • Full speeches are shown live, and never shown again in their entirety. • The President is given 8 seconds of uninterrupted talking time • In 1968 it was a total of 43 seconds. • Broadcasting channels can refuse to show speeches and leave them to the narrowcast channels. • Fox opted out of Healthcare address for Dancing with the Stars.
Its fine by us (bias) • Media outlets tend to lean more left • 40% identify liberal • 25% identify conservative • This bias feeds into a need for excitement • A reporter can be wrong, but never boring. • Fox news clip yesterday.
The Agenda Setters • Agenda Setting Effect: • Media increases attention to certain criteria • The public evaluates their leadership based on this criteria. • Job creation, deaths in a conflict, etc. • Can phrase stories differently to influence opinions • Talking briefly on successes of troop surge in Iraq • Focusing on plummeting economy • What will the public focus on more?
More effects • Watchdog Effect • Reporters view it as their responsibility to keep politicians honest. • Expose corruption, and fact check statistics • 62% say it is the press’ job to keep politics honest • 22% say it gets in the way of politicians doing their jobs.
Political Entrepreneurs • See to effect the policy agenda. • Policy agenda: issues that grab the attention of those who are involved in politics • Gay marriage rights, gun control, and immigration reform. • How do they effect agenda? • Press releases, press conferences, letter writing, and convincing reporters to take their side. • Other ways groups gain attention • Staging large dramatic events such as protests, or extreme displays.
1.) In the past 20 years, the media in the United States has undergone a transformation from “broadcasting” to “narrowcasting.” • a.) Describe the difference between broadcasting and narrowcasting. • b.) Describe how narrowcasting affects bias in the media. • c.) Describe how narrowcasting can affect the media’s ability to influence public opinion.