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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 Norton Media Library Give Me Liberty! An American History Second EditionVolume 1 by Eric Foner

  2. I. First Americans • Arrival of Native Americans • Gradual settlement across Americas • Environmental change and rise of agriculture • Aztec and Inca Empires

  3. I. First Americans (cont’d) • North American Indians • Wide-ranging and evolving societies • Mississippi Valley • Ohio River Valley • Southwest • West Coast • Great Plains • Southeast • Northeast • Interrelations among Indian societies • Trade • Diplomacy • War

  4. I. First Americans (cont’d) • North American Indians • Distinguishing factors among Indian societies • Political organization • Religious beliefs • Language • Absence of shared identity • Common characteristics among Indian societies • Spiritual outlook • Place of ritual • Views on natural and supernatural • Views on secular and religious • Conceptions of property • Relative lack of material inequality • Systems of gender relations • European disdain for Indian customs and values

  5. II. Indian freedom, European freedom • Indian conceptions of freedom • Basis in collective belonging, self-determination, mutuality • Absence of basis in individual autonomy, private property • European incomprehension of • European conceptions of freedom • Christian liberty • Freedom from sin • No freedom of religious choice • Freedom and inequality in early modern England • Emphasis on ordered, hierarchical society • Gender hierarchies • Class hierarchies • Unequal distribution of freedoms

  6. III. Start of European expansion • Initial aims • Commercial sea route to Asia • Circumvention of Islamic middlemen • Eastward expansion • Portugal’s exploration, extension of trading empire • West Africa • Cape of Good Hope • India • Far East • Portugal’s colonization of Atlantic islands • Sugar plantations • Slaves from Africa

  7. III. Start of European expansion (cont’d) • Slavery and Africa • Traditional patterns of African slavery • Acceleration of slave trade following European arrival • Westward expansion • Voyages of Christopher Columbus • Quest for westward route to Asia • Sponsorship of Spain • First Spanish presence in New World • Settlements at Hispaniola • Explorations by Amerigo Vespucci • First English and Portuguese presence in New World • John Cabot (Newfoundland) • Pedro Cabral (Brazil)

  8. IV. Spanish conquest of New World • Motivations • Acquisition of wealth • National glory • Spread of Catholicism • The Conquistadores • Vasco Núňez de Balboa’s expedition to Panama, the Pacific • Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition around the world • Hernán Cortés’s conquest of the Aztecs • Background on Aztec empire • Defeat, devastation, subjugation of the Aztecs • Francisco Pizarro’s conquest of the Incas • Background on Inca empire • Defeat, devastation, subjugation of the Incas

  9. V. Demographic consequences of European arrival in the Americas • “Columbian exchange” of goods and people • Devastation of Indian population • Breadth and magnitude • Causes • War • Enslavement • Disease

  10. VI. The Spanish Empire (sixteenth century) • Breadth • System of colonial government • Curbing of conquistador aggression • Establishment of top-down royal governance • Emergence of locally based governance • Exploitation of Indian labor • Gold and silver mines • Large-scale farms (haciendas) • Emigration from Spain • Volume • Social composition • Impact of native societies on empire’s prospects

  11. VI. The Spanish Empire (sixteenth century) (cont’d) • Gestation of a hybrid culture; Mestizos • Justifications for conquest • Perception of cultural superiority • Old-World precedent for violent crusades • Papal bull dividing New World between Spain and Portugal • Imperative to spread Catholicism • Versus heathenism • Versus Protestantism

  12. VI. The Spanish Empire (sixteenth century) (cont’d) • Spain and the Indians • Dual agenda of saving souls and exploiting labor • External restraints on brutalization of Indians • Pope Paul III’s ban on Indian enslavement • Bartolomé de las Casas’s Destruction of the Indies • Spanish reforms of colonist-Indian relations • Abolition of Indian enslavement • Abolition of encomienda system • Implementation of repartimiento system • Continuing abuse of Indians

  13. VI. The Spanish Empire (sixteenth century) (cont’d) • Colonial labor system at end of sixteenth century • Involuntary wage labor by Indians • Slave labor by Africans • Emergence of Black Legend image of Spanish colonizers • Spanish explorations of North America • Motivations • Riches • Strategic bases • Religious conversion

  14. VI. The Spanish Empire (sixteenth century) (cont’d) • Spanish explorations of North America • Exploratory expeditions • Juan Ponce de Léon • Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo • Hernando de Soto • Cabeza de Vaca • Francisco Vásquez de Coronado • Devastation of Indian communities • Establishment of Spanish settlements • In present-day Southeast • In present-day Southwest

  15. VI. The Spanish Empire (sixteenth century) (cont’d) • Pueblo Revolt • Sources of Pueblo resentment of colonial authorities • Labor exploitation • Pressure to convert to Catholicism • Assault on Pueblo religious traditions • Failure to protect Pueblos from drought, external attacks • The 1680 Revolt • Popé • Background • Leadership • Unity of Pueblo rebels • Defeat and ouster of Spanish colonizers

  16. VI. The Spanish Empire (sixteenth century) (cont’d) • Pueblo Revolt • Aftermath of revolt • Eradication of Spanish cultural presence • Collapse of Pueblo unity • Return of Spanish colonial rule • Easing of colonial practices toward Pueblos

  17. VII. The French and Dutch empires • Overall significance • As part of Atlantic rivalry with Spain • Modesty of, compared to Spanish empire • The French empire • Initial aims • Initial obstacles • Establishment and scope of • Relations with Indians • Social and economic arrangements • Limits of growth

  18. VII. The French and Dutch empires (cont’d) • The Dutch empire • Establishment and scope of • Place within Dutch commercial empire • Conceptions of liberty and toleration • Social and economic arrangements • Limits of growth • Relations with Indians

  19. http://www.wwnorton.com/foner Studyspace link

  20. End slide This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 1 Give Me Liberty! An American History 2nd Edition, Volume 1 by Eric Foner W. W. Norton & CompanyIndependent and Employee-Owned