Ww1, roaring 20s, depression new deal exam... • AVG = -10 (82%) • High = 100. • (#19 was omitted)
Ww1, roaring 20s, depression new deal exam... • The essay outline was worth 15pts counted separately.
1 -98% 2 -96% 3 -95% 4 -93% 5 -91% 6 -89% 7 -87% 8 -85% 9 -84% 10 -82% 11 -80% 12 -78% 13 -76% 14 -75% 15 -73% 16 -71% 17 -69% 18 -67% 19 -65% 20 -64%
12. The Fourteen Points included all of the following provisions except A. the right of self-determinationB. a league of nationsC. impartial mediation of colonial claimsD. reduction of armsE. the rights of the individual
14. The main factor that doomed the Treaty of Versailles in the U.S. Senate was A. a loss of public interest in European affairsB. a Republican filibusterC. President Wilson's refusal to compromiseD. conflicts between the treaty and the Monroe DoctrineE. the breakdown of diplomatic relations with France
15. The Red scare began in 1919 as a response to A. the success of the Russian RevolutionB. the creation of the Comintern to export Communist revolution from the Soviet Union to the WestC. acts of violence against American businessmen and politiciansD. the bombing of U.S. Attorney General Palmer's houseE. all of the answers above
16. The Red scare resulted in all of the following actions except A. the federal government arrested thousands for possession of explosives and weaponsB. the government summarily deported many radicals who were not citizensC. mobs committed acts of violence against supposed radicalsD. state governments arrested and jailed hundreds on sedition chargesE. the government prosecuted anarchists such as Sacco and Vanzetti
19. The "noble experiment" of prohibition resulted in all of the following developments except A. a substantial reduction in drinking in some regions of the countryB. the creation of a very large force of government agents to enforce the lawC. the rise of organized crime to take over the illegal but lucrative alcohol businessD. the continued defense of prohibition by rural, Protestant AmericansE. the loss of support for prohibition from some middle-class progressives
22. In their writings, the "disenchanted" intellectuals of the 1920s emphasized the theme of A. the close link between happiness and artistic successB. achieving a socialist revolutionC. ridicule of material successD. optimism for the futureE. the importance of traditional values
4. During World War I, the commander of the American troops in Europe was _____.
7. Attorney General _____ was one of the leaders of the U.S. government's attempt to suppress radicals in 1919 and 1920.
27. Dr. _____ was the first to propose a plan providing federal pensions for the elderly, an idea later to be incorporated into the Social Security system.
US FOREIGN POLICY FROM 1920 TO 1941
The Road to World War II 1919-1939
1. Foreign Policy Tensions Interventionism Disarmament • Isolationism • Nativists • Anti-War movement • Collective security • “Wilsonianism” • Business interests
2. American Isolationism • Isolationists like Senator Lodge, refused to allow the US to sign the Versailles Treaty. • Security treaty with France also rejected by the Senate. • July, 1921 Congress passed a resolution declaring WW I officially over! Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. [R-MA]
Problems in Europe After WWI Great Depression Economic = people were jobless Political = weak governments could not solve problems in their countries. Fear of Jews and Communists Social = times of unrest people look for a leader.
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Power of government rests in one man. • TOTAL POWER • No freedoms in this society….. • Usually racist and discriminatory towards certain groups…… • Often have large militaries and must expand and conquer to gain approval from their people.
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Benito Mussolini • 1922/Italy---Facism • Believe, Obey and Fight • Revive the Roman Empire • FACISM:BASED ON A SYMBOL OF AUTHORITY IN THE OLD ROMAN EMPIRE…………” • a dictatorship, state control of industry, racial superiority, supremacy of the leader, limits civil rights, together with an ideology of belligerent nationalism, militarism and expansion…..”
dictators 5. TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Joseph Stalin1921 • Soviet Union • Goal: Spread Communism throughout the world • Stalin maneuvered himself into becoming the leader of the Soviet Union. • The Russian Revolution was led by the people to overthrow a monarch but when the new ruling class took over, there were no protections of people’s rights…… “NO BILL OF RIGHTS” • Communism and fascism are similar in their ideologies
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Took the form of a god and ruled Japan from 1926 to 1989. • Japan’s Manifest Destiny was to expand into China and the rest of Asia. • Empire of the Sun Emperor Horhito
dictators TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • 1931/Japan, expansionist and military leader • Would threaten our island possessions and U.S. trade policy into China, Open Door Policy. • Planned the Pearl Habor attack Hideki Tojo
TOTALITARIAN DICTATORS • Adolph Hitler, fought in WWI and hated the Treaty of Versailles • Becamedictator of Germany in 1933. • Create a new empire, “Third Reich” • Revenge towards the Treaty of Versailles • Rearm Germany • Take back land lost from WWI
Washington Naval Conference[1921-1922] • First disarmament conference in history! • Takes Place Outside the League of Nations first disarmament conference in history
Washington Naval Conference • Four-Power Pact(December 13, 1921). • Britain, France, Japan and the United States agreed to submit disputes among themselves over Pacific issues to a conference for resolution. • Pledged mutual respect for the possessions and mandates of other signatories (participants) in the Pacific.
Washington Naval Conference • 10. Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty(February 6, 1922). • The leading naval powers, Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States pledged to limit the tonnage of ships and accepted a stoppage of new naval construction. 5-3-1 ration • Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in the U.S. • Britain, U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
Washington Conference • 10. Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty(February 6, 1922). • Agreed on a series of rules for the use of submarines in future warfare and also outlawed the use of poisonous gases as a military weapon.
Washington Conference • 11. Nine-Power Treaty(February 6, 1922). • Big Four, plus Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal and China endorsed the Open Door Policy and pledged mutual respect for Chinese territorial integrity and independence. • In the following months, the U.S. Senate ratified all of the treaties from the Washington Conference.
12. Kellogg-Briand Pact: 1928 • 60 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes. • Problem no way of enforcement.
Kellog Briand Pact The Kellogg-Briand Pact provided for outlawing war as an “an instrument of national policy,” and was further notable for the following: • The pact was signed in August 1928 by 15 nations. • In the following months, more than 60 countries joined in this renunciation of war. • The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee studied the matter and issued a report that maintained that the pact did not impair the nation’s ability to act to protect the Monroe Doctrine. • US Senate ratified this treaty.
Kellog Briand Pact Additional countries which join by July 24, 1929. Persia, July 2, 1929; Greece, August 3, 1929; Honduras, August 6, 1929; Chile, August 12, 1929; Luxemburg August 14, 1929; Danzig, September 11, 1929; Costa Rica, October 1, 1929; Venezuela, October 24, 1929.
Kellog Briand Pact The Kellogg-Briand Pact provided for outlawing war as an “an instrument of national policy,” and was further notable for the following: 13. Major problems with this treaty No enforcement mechanism was provided for changing the behavior of warring signatories. No expiration date was provided. No provision existed for amending the agreement was included.
Kellog Briand Pact • In the 1930’s, the idealism of “ending all war” would be shattered when the Japanese, Italy, Germany and Soviet Union began WWII. • Idealism, is what it is: “ideas”. Some can work and others can’t. • In a realistic world, countries realized that they needed to protect themselves from aggressor nations. • It is still this way today but we have the United Nations to promote world peace and “contain” aggressor nations.
Dawes and Young Plan • Dawes Plan • Presented in 1924 by the committee headed by Charles G. Dawes to the Reparations Commission of the Allied nations. It was accepted the same year by Germany and the Allied Nations. • The Dawes Committee was entrusted with finding a solution for the collection of the German reparations debt, set at almost $54 billion. • Germany had been lagging in payment of this obligation and the Dawes Plan provided a repayment schedule over 4 years to the Allies. The Germans would continue to lag behind in payments.
GREAT DEPRESSION EVENTS DEBTS • US high tariffs (Hawley-Smoot Tariff) caused Great Britain and France to not trade with US. • US became “economic isolationist”. • Because of this, Great Britain and France did not pay back war debts to the US. • GB and France defaulted on their debt because they had paid in blood. PRIVATE LOANS WALL STREET BANKERS US INVESTORS GERMANY WAR DEBT PAYMENTS “REPARATIONS” ALLIED WAR DEBT PAYMENTS GREAT BRITAIN US TREASURY FRANCE
Young Plan • Program for settlement of German reparations debts after WW I. • After the Dawes Plan was put into operation (1924), it became apparent that Germany could not meet the huge annual payments, especially over an indefinite period of time. • The Young Plan: which set the total reparations at $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58 1/2 years : was thus adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 to supersede the Dawes Plan. • Germany felt the full impact of economic depression and a moratorium was called for the fiscal year 1931–32. • When Adolf Hitler took over Germany, he defaulted on the unpaid reparations debt. • After Germany's defeat in World War II, an international conference decided (1953) that Germany would pay the remaining debt only after the country was reunified. • West Germany paid off the principal by 1980; then in 1995, after reunification, the new German government announced it would resume payments of the interest.
Clark Memorandum (1928) • Clark pledged that the US would not intervene in Latin American affairs in order to protect US property rights. • This was a complete rebuke of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine! Secretary of StateJ. Reuben Clark
FDR’s “Good Neighbor” Policy • Important to have all nations in the Western Hemisphere united in lieu of foreign aggressions. • FDR The good neighbor respects himself and the rights of others. • Policy of non-intervention and cooperation.
democracies U.S RESPONSE TO FASCIST AGGRESSION • BETWEEN 1931 TO 1941, JAPAN INVADES MOST OF ASIA AND WAS THREATENING U.S. ISLANDS AND OUR OPEN DOOR TRADE POLICY. • FROM 1935 TO 1939, HITLER REMARMED GERMANY IN VIOLATION OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES. • GERMANY/ITALY CONQUERED ALL THE DEMOCRACIES IN EUROPE. • US POLICY WAS STRICT NEUTRALITY BUT ULTIMATELY WOULD BE DRAWN INTO WWII.