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Hazards in canada

By Jacinthe LACROIX Meteorological Service of Canada. Hazards in canada. A few facts on Canada. Canada: a big country (close to 10 millions Km 2 ) with a population of 34,5 millions (3.5 per Km 2 ). 76.5% of Canadians live in cities and towns

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Hazards in canada

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  1. By Jacinthe LACROIX Meteorological Service of Canada Hazards in canada

  2. A few facts on Canada • Canada: a big country (close to 10 millions Km2) with a population of 34,5 millions (3.5 per Km2). • 76.5% of Canadians live in cities and towns • 31% live in the largestcities of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver • 10 provinces and 3 territories

  3. Some Background on Risk Assessment and Emergency Management in Canada • EM is a sharedresponsabilitybetween all levels of government. • Within Canada's constitutional framework, the provincial and territorial governments and local authorities provide the first response to the vast majority of emergencies. • However, at the federal level, areas of responsibility of federal institutions are established according to their respective mandates, which form the basis for the attribution of responsibilities with respect to specific hazards. These responsibilities can include monitoring, detecting and data processingactivities of hazards. • Emergency management adopts an all-hazards approach in every jurisdiction in Canada by addressing vulnerabilities exposed by both natural and human-induced hazards and disasters.

  4. Prime Minister Premier Cabinet Operations Committee (Adjusted as required by incident) Provincial Ministers National Policy Direction DM National Security Committee Provincial DMs ADM Emergency Management Committee Provincial ADMs Government Operations Centre (GOC) Strategic Coordination Federal Department Federal Operational Coordination Group Provincial EOC Regional Federal Offices/Resources Linkages: Government of Canada EM Response structure

  5. Federalroles in Hazard management: the example of wildlandfire management • Forests, and wildland fire management are primarily provincial/territorial jurisdiction • Provinces, use the Canadian Forest Service developed tools (e.g. fire bans, evacuations, predicting of paths of smoke plumes) • identify priority areas for fire suppression resources • less damage to property, timber; safer communities • Facilitation of inter-provincial and international collaboration: sharing of resources (e.g. Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Centre); • A coordination role in research, compiling and analyzing data, fire prediction modelling • knowledge and technology for wildland fire management provided to provinces and territories Weather Stations Federal Government Provincial management agencies USA National Weather Service

  6. The Canadian DisasterDatabase • The Canadian Disaster Database (CDD) contains detailed disaster information on more than 1000 natural, technological and conflict events (excluding war) that have happened since 1900 at home or abroad and that have directly affected Canadians. • Definition of disaster meets one or more of the following criteria: • 10 or more people killed • 100 or more people affected/injured/infected/evacuated or homeless • an appeal for national/international assistance • historical significance • significant damage/interruption of normal processes such that the community affected cannot recover on its own

  7. Natural HazardsMap of Canada

  8. EC: Hazards Website “revival” • National Hazard Website • Definition, Background & Important information • Historical Maps • Excel Data Tables • Historical Events • Historical Trends • Climate Change Information • Regional Websites (Nodes) • Historical Information on Regional Atmospheric Hazards • Maps, graphics, supplementary hazards datasets are featured, with trends and events information available on some of the sites. • Unique products produced by the regional team

  9. TOP Hazards in Canada: floods Floods are the mostdamaginghazards in Canada • Together, Environment Canada (EC), provinces and territories, provide crucial information to help forewarn Canadians of potential flooding dangers. • http://www.ec.gc.ca/flood watch

  10. TOP Hazards in Canada: droughts • The mostcostlyhazardisdroughts (mostly Prairies provinces) • Oftenassociatedwithincreasedsoilerosion (blowingwinds) and wildfires • A drought watch is assumed by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada • http://www.agr.gc.ca/AAFC-AAC/drought watch

  11. TOP Hazards in Canada: Coasts at risk • Hurricane ( mostlyEastern Canada) • EC-Canadian Hurricane Center issues forecasts, warnings and products http://www.ec.gc.ca/ouragans-hurricanes • Storm surge: Atlantic and Pacific coasts, large lakes. • Warnings are issued by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) http://weather.gc.ca/canada_e.html All earthquakes of the last 30 days • Tsunamis (Pacific coast) –associatedwithearthquakes • Natural Resources Canada followsthese conditions – Tsunami warning system • http://www.earthquakescanada.nrcan.gc.ca/info-gen/tsunami-eng.php • Tsunami warning system for Pacific: http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/

  12. TOP Hazards in Canada:Severe thunderstorms • Large hail, windgusts, heavydownpour, tornadoes, lightning • Watches and warnings are issued by the Meteorological Service of Canada http://weather.gc.ca/canada_e.html

  13. TOP Hazards in Canada: winter storms • Heavy snow, blizzard, freezingrain, extremewindchill • Watches and warnings are issued by the Meteorological Service of Canada http://weather.gc.ca/canada_e.html Types of winterstorms and theircommon locations

  14. EC-MSC Public AlertingProgramHazardcriteria • Hazard types included: • Rainfall • Severethunderstorm • Tornado • Wind • Duststorm • Blizzard • Winter storm • Snowfall • Snow squall • Blowingsnow • Freezingrain, freezingdrizzle • Flash freeze • Hazard types underdevelopment: frost, high heat and humidityheatwave, humidex, windchill • Hazard types belonging to separate programs: tropical storm, hurricane, tsunami

  15. Water & Climate Predictions & ProjectionsMulti-Scale Alerting Systems Using Water & Climate Information in the context of early notification at different timescales Medium & long range forecasts Nowcasting / short range forecasting Climate scenarios Historical Recurrence Antecedent conditions Observations Short-term forecasts Radar Dynamic alert thresholds Two way risk communications (early notifications, short term alerts) Knowledge on weather related impacts Climatology of extremes Critical warning thresholds according to weather parameters Precipitation Temperature Water levels Ice conditions Soil water logging 4 to 15 day forecasts Monthly and Seasonal forecasts Two way risk communications (long term trends) Climate projections Knowledge on future extremes past present future Applications Revising of civil safety diagram Revising of emergency plans Building code Land use Etc. Risk forecast Management of dams Policy on watering Triggering of emergency plan Etc. Impact database Lessons learned Planning & preparation Intervention

  16. EM Plan Relative Risk of Hazard Addressed by EM Activity (Risk to Canada) (Likelihood of Occurrence x Consequences of Occurrence) Direct Hazard CFSCMSS/PAPM/SPI ESESS ETPS MMS Other Support 5 Unique Support Consequential Hazard Lead Riskassessment to adress EM requirements…

  17. Water, Climate and Ice MonitoringClimate Network • EC operates surface weather and climate observation networks which provide the foundation for Canada’s high-quality, long-term climate record. • EC is working to ensure the sustained integrity and modernization of these critical networks.

  18. Water, Climate and Ice Monitoring Hydrometric Network EC’s Water Survey of Canada is responsible for the collection, interpretation, and dissemination of standardized water data and information in Canada. It partners with provinces, territories and other agencies to operate over 2500 active hydrometric gauges across the country.

  19. Water, Climate and Ice Monitoring Ice Monitoring & Observations • EC’s Canadian Ice Service provides a variety of monitoring and observation-based products of sea and lake ice conditions in Canadian navigable waters including: • Daily and Weekly ice charts • Image analysis charts • RADARSAT mosaic and MODIS composite images

  20. Monitoring Products • Environment Canada (EC) produces a variety of climate monitoring products, some of which originate from S&T Branch and some from the MSC. • Depending on the source (STB or MSC) and intended use, climate monitoring products are derived from either quality controlled data from the MSC’s National Archives System (i.e. climate station data) or STB’s Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data. • Climate monitoring products are designed, calculated, and targeted to different audiences and purposes. For this reason, both data streams are kept current.

  21. A broad range of products & servicesCanada’s National Climate Archive • Website launched July 31st, 2003: http://www.climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca • Second most popular Environment Canada website (after WeatherOffice) • Data Display • Bulk Access Data • Climate Normals & Averages • 1961 to 1990 and 1971 to 2000 • 1400 stations available online • The new1981-2010 normals will be available by the December 2012 • Climate Summaries • Monthly summary of averages and extremes • Available the 5th of every month • Historical Radar • 31 Radar sites across Canada • Animated images up to a maximum time span of 12 hours can be displayed • Rain and snow PRECIP images • Customized datasets

  22. A broad range of products & services Hydrometric Information • Water Survey of Canada information is searchable at: http://www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/applications/H2O/index-eng.cfm • Various hydrometric data and information is available: • eg. streamflow, water levels, sedimentation, and site information

  23. Snow 1950-2009 A broad range of products & servicesAnalyses and DerivedProducts Eg. Precipitation Analyses Mapping of accumulated precipitation over time Mapping of trends in annual rain and snowfall. 744 hour totals Examples Mekis and Vincent, 2011

  24. A broad range of products & servicesEngineering Services • Intensity-Duration-Frequency Files (IDF) Curves • 549 locations across Canada • 1 to 30 day available online • Support for infrastructure codes and standards • Wind, snow loads, temperatures, precipitation, wind pressures, etc. • Water Budget Model • Climate-based model accounting for water gains and losses at a given location

  25. A broad range of products & servicesEngineering Services (2) Text • Eg. Tailored Products for Infrastructure Codes & Standards: • Updates of Canadian standards in 2010: • 9 of 15 climatic elements for 680 locations in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) updated and expanded (first for wind since 1958) • New NBCC information for tornado prone areas and frost penetration • Update of ice/wind loads for the Canadian Standards Assoc. transmission line standard (1st since 1998 ice storm) • Two new Canadian Standards Association Guides: • Adaptation to Climate Change for Infrastructure • Permafrost and Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) information for storm and waste water management

  26. Lookingatrisksfrom a climate change perspective: the example of Health Dangerous travelling conditions Permafrost melt damaging infrastructures Changes in drinking water quality and quantity Food security - changing animal distributions Heat–related illnesses and deaths Health impacts from more severe storms Psychosocial impacts from droughts Water-borne diseases from floods Expansion of Lyme Disease vector Respiratory illnesses from forest fires

  27. Questions?

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