BASES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCE FRENCH & RAVEN (59) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BASES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCE FRENCH & RAVEN (59)

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  1. BASES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCEFRENCH & RAVEN (59) LEGITIMATE POWER Authority to command, based on the position REWARD POWER Able to award positive, desired outcomes COERCIVE POWER Able to threaten, punish or harm EXPERT POWER Influence based on knowledge and information REFERENT POWER Influence based on charisma, identification and trust

  2. MOST LIKELY OUTCOMES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCEYUKL (89) • RESISTANCE COERCIVE • COMPLIANCE LEGITIMATE REWARD • COMMITMENT EXPERT REFERENT

  3. GUIDELINES FOR USING POWERYUKL (89) EXPERT POWER • ACT CONFIDENT AND DECISIVE • KEEP INFORMED • DON’T THREATEN SUBORDINATES’ SELF-ESTEEM – BE APPROACHABLE • WILLING TO SHARE YOUR KNOWLEDGE WITH OTHERS REFERENT POWER • TREAT SUBORDINATES FAIRLY • DEFEND SUBORDINATES’ INTERESTS • BE SENSITIVE TO SUBORDINATES’ NEEDS & FEELINGS LEGITIMATE POWER • BE CORDIAL, POLITE, AND CONFIDENT • MAKE APPROPRIATE REQUESTS • FOLLOW PROPER CHANNELS • EXERCISE POWER REGULARLY AND ENFORCE COMPLIANCE REWARD POWER • VERIFY COMPLIANCE AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS • OFFER REWARDS FOR DESIRED ACTIONS AND BEHAVIORS • OFFER CREDIBLE REWARDS THAT ARE DESIRED BY SUBORDINATES COERCIVE POWER • INFORM SUBORDINATES OF RULES AND PENALTIES • UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION BEFORE ACTING & WARN BEFORE PUNISHING • ADMINISTER PUNISHMENT CONSISTENTLY & PUNISH IN PRIVATE

  4. WHO HAS PRACTICAL POWER? LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS: • Can intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble in the firm • Able to get approval for expenditures beyond the budget • Able to get items on the agenda at major meetings • Can get fast access to top decision makers in the organization UPWARD POWER TACTICS PERSUADE A SUPERIOR TO ACCEPT A NEW IDEA? • REASON AND LOGIC • COALITIONS SEEKING BENEFITS FROM A SUPERIOR?. • KIND WORDS & FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIPS • NEGOTIATIONS & BARGAINING DOWNWARD POWER TACTICS GET A SUBORDINATE TO DO SOMETHING NEW • REASON • ASSERTIVENESS • FRIENDLINESS • SANCTIONS

  5. DEPENDENCY: THE KEY TO POWER • The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater power A has over B. • If something is plentiful, possession of it will not increase your power. DEPENDENCY IS INCREASED WHEN THE RESOURCE YOU CONTROL IS: IMPORTANT Ability to reduce uncertainty Is the dependency situational? • MARKETING, ENGINEERING, LABOR NEGOTIATORS SCARCE A rare resource Highly specialized knowledge Information that’s not readily available NONSUBSTITUTABLE No viable alternatives

  6. POWER AND POLITICS WHEN “A” CAN GET “B” TO DO SOMETHING “B” WOULDN’T NORMALLY DO WHEN I WANT A PARTICULAR RESULT, HOW DO I GET MY WAY? YOU MUST PERCEIVE THAT YOU ARE DEPENDENT ON ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL FOR THAT INDIVIDUAL TO HAVE POWER OVER YOU. USING YOUR POWER TO PUSH A GROUP TO ACCOMPLISH THE GOALS YOU DESIRE. DOING WHAT THE PERSON WITH THE MOST POWER WANTS. PROBLEMS WITH POWER NEGATIVE PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE WHO USE THEIR POWER ADDICTIVENESS OF POWER (POWER CORRUPTS!)

  7. POLITICAL BEHAVIOR ACTIVITIES THAT ARE NOT REQUIRED AS PART OF ONE’S FORMAL ROLE, BUT THAT INFLUENCE, OR ATTEMPT TO INFLUENCE THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION. 1. OUTSIDE OF ONE’S JOB REQUIREMENTS 2. USE OF ONE’S POWER BASES TO INFLUENCE DECISIONS 3. AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADVANTAGES TO YOU LEGITIMATE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR – PRAGMATIC POLITICS COMPLAINTS TO THE SUPERVISOR BYPASSING THE CHAIN OF COMMAND FORMING COALITIONS OBSTRUCTING POLICIES BY EXCESSIVE ADHERENCE TO THE RULES ILLEGITIMATE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR –PLAY HARDBALL, VIOLATE RULESSABOTAGE WHISTLE-BLOWING SYMBOLIC PROTESTS SIMULTANEOUS “SICK” CALLS

  8. REASONS FOR POLITICAL BEHAVIORIN ORGANIZATIONSMILES (80) • AMBIGUOUS GOALS • EROSION OF POSITION • PERCEIVED THREATS • SCARCE RESOURCES • TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTIES • ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE WHEN RESOURCES ARE LIMITED, A BELIEF THAT GAINS TO ONE GROUP COME AT THE EXPENSE OF LOSSES TO SOMEONE ELSE (ZERO-SUM GAME SITUATIONS) WHEN THE “FACTS” USED TO MAKE RESOURCE ALLOCATION DECISIONS ARE OPEN TO INTERPRETATION WHEN OTHER INTERESTED PARTIES ARE POLITICALLY ASTUTE POLITICS IS A FACT OF LIFE IN ORGANIZATIONS. MANAGERS NEED TOKNOW HOW TO PLAY THE POLITICAL GAME TO PROTECT THEIR TURF AND GET THEIR “FAIR SHARE.”

  9. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE POLITICAL BEHAVIORFARRELL & PETERSON (88) INDIVIDUAL FACTORS • HIGH SELF-MONITOR • INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL • HIGH MACHIVELLIAN • ORGANIZATIONAL INVESTMENT • NUMBER OF PERCEIVED JOB ALTERNATIVES • EXPECTATIONS OF SUCCESS ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS • REALLOCATION OF RESOURCES • PROMOTION OPPORTUNITIES • LOW TRUST • ROLE AMBIGUITY • UNCLEAR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA • ZERO-SUM REWARD SYSTEMS • PARTICIPATIVE DECISION MAKING • HIGH PERFORMANCE PRESSURE • SELF-SERVING TOP MANAGERS

  10. HOW DO PEOPLE RESPOND TO ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS? • DECREASED JOB SATISFACTION • INCREASED ANXIETY AND STRESS • INCREASED TURNOVER • REDUCED PERFORMANCE PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES • GAIN CONTROL OF CRITICAL ORGANIZATIONAL RESOURCES • CONTROL THE LINES OF COMMUNICATION • CONTROL THE SOURCE OF CRITICAL INFORMATION • CONTROL THE AGENDA • CONTROL THE CHOICE OF DECISION CRITERIA • CONTROL SELECTION OF CONSULTANTS AND OUTSIDE EXPERTS • BUILD A COALITION (Allies) • SUPPORT YOUR BOSS (KEEP ‘EM HAPPY) • BE VISIBLE…BUILD UP YOUR IMAGE (IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT) • ASSOCIATE YOURSELF WITH PAST SUCCESSES • TAKE CREDIT FOR PREVIOUS ACCOMPLISHMENTS • MAKE YOURSELF APPEAR INDISPENSIBLE

  11. DEFENSIVE POLITICAL BEHAVIORS AVOIDING ACTION • OVERCONFORMING -- Following the “rules” precisely • PASSING THE BUCK -- That’s somebody else’s responsibility • PLAYING DUMB -- I didn’t know • STRETCHING -- Prolonging an existing task…I’m too busy! • STALLING -- “Foot-dragging” AVOIDING BLAME • BUFFING -- Formally documenting every move…Cover yourself • PLAYING SAFE -- Don’t take risks…get OK from above…qualify answers • JUSTIFYING -- Develop explanations that lessen your responsibility • SCAPEGOATING -- Placing blame on external factors or others • MISREPRESENTING -- Selective presentation and distortion of information AVOIDING CHANGE • PREVENTION -- Trying to stop a threatening change from happening…stall, etc • SELF-PROTECTION -- Guard your “turf”…”this is our responsibility…not yours!” EFFECTS OF DEFENSIVE POLITICAL BEHAVIORS • SLOWS DOWN DECISION MAKING • INCREASES INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP TENSION • RESTRICTS CHANGE EFFORTS • LEADS TO ORGANIZATIONAL RIGIDITY AND STAGNATION • DETACHMENT FROM THE ORGANIZATION’S ENVIRONMENT • AN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE THAT IS HIGHLY POLITICIZED

  12. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENTBY SELF-MONITORS OFTEN OBSERVED IN INTERVIEWS AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL MEETINGS IMPRESSION MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES CONFORMITYAgreeing with someone else in order to gain his/her approval ”You’re absolutely right. I couldn’t agree more!” EXCUSES Explanations that minimize the apparent severity of a predicament “We didn’t get the ad in the paper on time, but no one responds to those ads anyway.” APOLOGIES Admitting responsibility and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon “I’m sorry I made a mistake on the report. Please forgive me.” SELF-PROMOTION Suggesting that good things happen when you’re involved “The sales in our division have nearly tripled since I was hired.” FLATTERY Compliments that make one appear perceptive and likable “Wow, that was tactful! I could never have handled that client as well as you did.” FAVORS Doing something nice for someone to gain that person’s approval “I have two tickets to the Bulls game that I can’t use tonight. Take them and have a good time.” ASSOCIATION Enhancing your image by association with favored people and things What a coincidence! Your boss and I were roommates at Andrews University!” USING THESE TECHNIQUES DOES RESULT IN MORE FAVORABLE EVALUATIONS IS THE CONVERSATION FOCUSED ON YOURSELF (CONTROLLING) OR ON THE INTERVIEWER (SUBMISSIVE)? THE CONTROLLING APPROACH YIELDS THE MOST POSITIVE RESULTS

  13. FOUR BASIC PROACTIVE FORMS OF POLITICAL BEHAVIOR • INDUCEMENT (exchanges) • PERSUASION (rational and emotional) • CREATING A SENSE OF OBLIGATION • COERCION

  14. POWER TACTICSYUKL & FALBE (90) 1. WHO CONTROLS THE RESOURCES I NEED? 2. HOW CAN I GET THEM TO HELP ME GET WHAT I DESIRE? LEGITIMACY THE REQUEST IS ACCORDING TO THE COMPANY RULES / POLICIES EXCHANGE NEGOTIATED COOPERATION; BARGAINED IF I HELP YOU, WHAT REWARDS WILL I RECEIVE IN RETURN? PRESSURE USE OF DEMANDS, THREATS OR INTIMIDATION TO GET OTHERS TO COMPLY COOPERATE…OR ELSE!! INGRATIATION VOLUNTARILY DOING NICE (UNEXPECTED) THINGS FOR OTHERS NOW, WITH THE EXPECTATION THAT IN THE FUTURE, THEY’LL OWE YOU SOMETHING IN RETURN A REMINDER OF HOW NICE OR HELPFUL I WAS TO YOU IN THE PAST RATIONAL PERSUASION CONVINCING OTHERS THAT YOUR PLAN OF ACTION IS MORE LOGICAL THAN THE OTHER IDEAS THEY WILL BE BETTER OFF IF THEY DO AS YOU SUGGEST UPWARD APPEALS ASKING HIGHER AUTHORITIES TO CONVINCE OTHERS TO SUPPORT YOUR EFFORTS OR POSITION INSPIRATIONAL APPEALS MAKING EMOTIONAL REQUESTS WHICH ATTEMPT TO APPEAL TO OTHERS’ FEELINGS AND VALUES CONSULTATION (COOPTATION) SEEKING TO ADVISE OR PARTICIPATE IN THE PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING SINCE THEY’RE INVOLVED, THEY SHOULD SUPPORT THE ACTION THAT HAS RESULTED COALITIONS FORMING A GROUP OF ALLIES WHICH HAVE COMMON INTERESTS

  15. SUMMARY ON POWER & POLITICS IF YOU WANT TO GET THINGS DONE…IT HELPS TO HAVE POWER THE WORKERS WHO FEEL POWERLESS ARE OFTEN THE ONES WHO ARE DIFFICULT TO WORK WITH, ARGUMENTATIVE, AND TEMPERMENTAL. EXPERT AND REFERENT / CHARISMATIC FORMS OF POWER ARE PERSONAL COERCIVE, REWARD AND LEGITIMATE POWER ARE DERIVED FROM THE FIRM EFFECTIVE MANAGERS LEARN HOW TO DEVELOP & USE THEIR EXPERT POWER BASE THE EFFECTIVE MANAGER ACCEPTS THE POLITICAL NATURE OF THE WORKPLACE AND LEARNS HOW TO “PLAY THE GAME” SOME PEOPLE ARE MORE “POLITICALLY ASTUTE” THAN OTHERS. THEY ARE GOOD AT PLAYING POLITICS, GET GOOD PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS, LARGER SALARY INCREASES, MORE PROMOTIONS AND HAVE HIGHER JOB SATISFACTION THAN THE POLICIALLY NAÏVE OR INEPT. PEOPLE WITH MODEST POLITICAL SKILLS OR THOSE WHO ARE UNWILLING TO PLAY THE POLITICAL GAMES AT WORK MAY SUFFER FROM LOWER JOB SATISFACTION, LOWER PERFORMANCE LEVELS, INCRREASED ANXIETY AND HIGHER TURNOVER.