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CST Review

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CST Review

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  1. CST Review Ecology and Evolution

  2. Ecology Power Standards • BI 6.a-Students know biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats. • BI.6.b.-Students know how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of nonnative species, or changes in population size. • BI.6.c.-Students know how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death. • BI.6.d.-Students know how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the ecosystem and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration • BI 6.e-Students know a vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers.

  3. Ecology Power Standards Summary • BI 6.a-Biodiversity is total number of different livings things in an area. Biodiversity is affected by changing habitats. • BI.6.b-Changes in an ecosystem can be caused by changes in climate, human activity (pollution), introduction of nonnative species (snakes), or changes in population size (limiting factors). • BI.6.c.-Changes in population size in an ecosystem can be caused by increased/decreased birth, immigration, emigration, and death rates. • BI.6.d.-Water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic (nonliving) resources and organic matter in the ecosystem. Oxygen cycles through photosynthesis (plants) and respiration (animals) in an ecosystem. • BI 6.e-Producers and decomposers maintain the stability (balance) of ecosystems. How?

  4. Big Idea:Ecology:Living and nonliving factors both make-up an ecosystem. • Key Terms: • Ecology-The study of the interaction among living things, and between living things and their environments • Ecosystem • Biotic and abiotic factors

  5. Big Idea:Ecology: Living and nonliving factors both make-up an ecosystem. • Food chains and Food webs-flow of energy in an ecosystem.

  6. Carbon Cycle

  7. The Nitrogen Cycle

  8. Oxygen Cycle

  9. Owl Mouse Grasshopper Grass What are food chains?

  10. What are food webs? • Food web-is a model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships and the flow of energy within an ecosystem. • At each link some energy is stored by an organism and some is lost. • The stability of an ecosystem depends on the producers.

  11. Big Idea: Evolution • is the theory that life has changed on Earth over long periods of time through a process called natural selection, where individuals with beneficial inherited traits produce more offspring than other individuals. This changes the frequency of the alleles in the gene pool. There is a broad range of evidence that supports evolutionary theory such as fossils, anatomical evidence, and genetic evidence.

  12. Standards:Evolution • BI7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: • BI7. a. Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism. • BI7. b. Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool. • BI7. d. Students know variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions.

  13. Standards Summary:Evolution • BI7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: • BI7. a. Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism. Means: NS acts on the physical or physiological traits of an individual. • BI7. b. Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool. Means: Lethal copies of genes (for homozygotes-have two copies of the gene) can be carried in the gene pool by heterozygotes. • BI7. d. Students know variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions. Means: The more genetic variation a species has the better chance they will have of surviving a changing environment because atleast some individuals will have the characteristics needed to survive.

  14. Standards:Evolution • BI8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept: • BI8. a. Students know how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms. • BI8. b. Students know a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment. • BI8. e. Students know how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction.

  15. Standards Summary:Evolution • BI8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept: • BI8. a. Students know how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms. Means: Survival of the fittest and the struggle for existence. • BI8. b. Students know a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment. Means: The more variety of organisms there are in an environment the better the chances are that some organisms will survive any major environmental changes. • BI8. e. Students know how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction. Means: Trend in fossil evidence show evolutionary patterns.

  16. What is natural selection’s role in evolution? • Natural selection-mechanism by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on average than do other individuals. • These adaptations occur over many generations in a population (descent with modification)

  17. How does natural selection drive evolution? • Struggle for Existence-individuals within a species compete for common resources • Survival of the Fittest- Individuals better suited for their environment reproduce more and have more offspring

  18. What are adaptations? • The inherited characteristics that increase an organism chances of survival are called adaptations • Natural selection results in changes of the inherited characteristics of a population

  19. Self-Assessment of Understanding • For the standards you do not understand, research the terms and write an explanation of two standards in your own words.