Visualization in science Nataša Tepić
dictionary: Visualisation is a relatively new term which describes the process of representing information or ideas by diagrams or graphs. expansion: maps, plots, animations, video, movies, ... What isvisualization?
You must never tell a thing. You must illustrate it. We learn through the eye and not the noggin.Will Rogers (1879 - 1935)
One picture is worth ten thousand words. Frederick R. Barnard: Printer's Ink 10.03.1927.
JMP The greatest value of a picture is when it forces us to notice what we never expectedto see. John Tukey
History • till 16thcentury data visualization = maps
the first world map- Anaximander from Miletus in Asia Minor (610-546 BC), Turkey(his map has been lost, Herodotus describes it in books“The Histories” II & IV)
History • in 15th century - Nikolaus Krebs (Nicholas of Cusa, Nicolaus Cusanus)developed graphs of distance vs. speed, presumably of the theoretical relation • during 16th century - development of geometric diagrams and various maps for data exploration– official start of data visualization • during 17th century - analytic geometry (René Descartes, Pierre de Fermat, ...) , theories of errors of measurement and estimation, the birth of probability theory, and the beginnings of demographic statistics and '' political arithmetic''
What do we see? • form • color • depth • motion
Human visual system • human sight reacts more intensively on contrast than on intensity • colors which we *see* are not completely identical to the colors in the nature • purpose of human sight is constantobject recognition regardless of angles, distance or lighting
Seeing is a Complex Process • Our brain constructsimage from: • information from our eyes • information stored in our brain
perception • process of collecting information about worldthrough our senses and their interpreting • perception depends on cultural heritage • perception changes with experience
Optical illusions • Illusions trick us into perceiving something differently than it actually exists, so what we see does not correspond to physical reality. The word illusion comes from the Latin verb illudere meaning, "to mock."
Why areoptical illusionsimportant fordata visualization? • inappropriate visual stimulation can confuse our brain • manipulativevisual stimulation can cause wrong interpretation
Optical illusions • Problems with visual perception: • area • angles • perspective
10 ?? How much is the area of circle B? A B • answer: 17
experiment • volunteer • Look at words from left to right. Say aloud the color of the text. Don’t read text. DUBROVNIK
ŽUTAPLAVANARANČASTA • CRNACRVENA ZELENA • LJUBIČASTAŽUTACRVENA • NARANČASTA ZELENACRNA • PLAVACRVENA LJUBIČASTA • ZELENAPLAVANARANČASTA
YELLOWBLUE ORANGE BLACKRED GREEN PURPLE YELLOWRED ORANGE GREENBLACK BLUERED PURPLE GREENBLUEORANGE
This is left-side/right-side-brain conflict. Right-side-brain tries to say color but left-side-brain insists on reading the word.
Color Meaning Colors are non-verbal communication. They have symbolism and color meanings that go beyond ink. redaction, confidence, courage, vitality blueunity, harmony, calmness, coolness, conservatism yellowjoy, optimism, summer, cowardice, greed greenspring, fertility, youth, environment, good luck orange energy, heat,enthusiasm,playfulness purpleroyalty, nobility, ceremony, magic, mystery pinkfemininity, love, beauty
A B male female
Color Blindness Ishihara Test for Color Blindness About 12 - 20 percent of white males and a tiny fraction of females are color blind. Normal Color Vision Red-Green Color Blind Left Middle RightLeft Middle Right Top 25 29 45 25 Spots Spots Bottom 56 6 8 56 Spots Spots 1
theory .... • Edward E. Tufte (professor emeritus of statistics, graphic design, and political economy) • "The Leonardo da Vinci of data."New York Times • he coined the term "chartjunk“.
chartjunk • This chart shows only five hard-to-read numbers, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16, but the digital file of the image is 11216 bytes (numbers) in size.