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Chapter 30 page 964

Chapter 30 page 964. The Cold War . Marshall Plan [1948]. “European Recovery Program.” Secretary of State, George Marshall The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe

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Chapter 30 page 964

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  1. Chapter 30 page 964 The Cold War

  2. Marshall Plan [1948] • “European Recovery Program.” • Secretary of State, George Marshall • The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe • extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].

  3. Two Superpowers Remain United States • Leads the Warsaw Pact in Eastern Europe • Leads NATO in Western Europe Countries stronger than everybody else Soviet Union Separated by the Iron Curtain

  4. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) • United States • Belgium • Britain • Canada • Denmark • France • Iceland • Italy • Luxemburg • Netherlands • Norway • Portugal • 1952: Greece & Turkey • 1955: West Germany • 1983: Spain

  5. Warsaw Pact (1955) • U. S. S. R. • Albania • Bulgaria • Czechoslovakia • East Germany • Hungary • Poland • Rumania

  6. The Berlin Wall -Many people were leaving East Germany to go West -East Germans build it to separate East Germany (communist) from West Germany (democratic) -kept people from leaving the East

  7. The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) CheckpointCharlie

  8. Nuclear Weapons • Both sides began an arms race to get the most powerful weapons (1950s) • People on both sides lived in fear of total destruction • Eventually began Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) to limit weapons (1970s)

  9. DETENTE -Cooling off or relaxation time of the Cold War -U.S. tries to limit the expansion of communism without war

  10. Cold War Goes Global • U.S. begins to build military bases around the world • Mini-conflicts occur in Asia and Africa • Both countries get involved to keep as many countries as possible on their side • Cuba (with leader Fidel Castro) becomes Communist • U.S. worried about Communism so close to home

  11. 1961 - Bay of Pigs • U.S. president John F. Kennedy decides to invade • the invaders surrender on April 20 after three days of fighting. • 1962- Russia sends nuclear weapons to Cuba • U.S. blockades Cuba so no more shipments can come in until all weapons are removed • World was at risk of nuclear war until Russia decided to remove the weapons after a few days Captured Cubans

  12. Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)

  13. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

  14. Page 976 Section 2 Democratic Countries Prosper

  15. Economic BooM U.S. was in good shape after World War II Most people lived comfortably Provided materials for others in the world Opportunities for all Americans now Marshall Plan [1948]

  16. Civil Rights Movement • Segregation and discrimination still existed for minorities • “Separate but equal” facilities were okay until: • 1954 Brown v. Board of Ed. (desegregated schools)

  17. “We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor, it must be demanded by the oppressed.” MLK Jr. Civil Disobedience • In 1957, Martin Luther the King Jr. helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). • group that used power of Black churches to organize non-violentprotests for equal rights • believed in the philosophy used by Gandhi in India known as nonviolent civil disobedience • The televised segregation violence led to mass public sympathy • The Civil Rights Movement became the most important political topic during the early 60’s

  18. “The Little Rock Nine” Central High School, Little Rock, Ark -Nine black students denied entry to school by Governor -U.S. government sends in military to allow students in and for protection

  19. -women’s rights movement for equality as well -most democratic nations prospered (Japan, Britain, W. Germany)

  20. Section 3 Page 985 Communism in Asia

  21. China becomes Communist • Taken over by Mao Zedong • Does not ally with Russia though • Old Chinese government forms country of Taiwan

  22. Korean War • -Korea divided into North (communist) and South (democratic) • -N. Korea invades the South to reunite Korea and make it all communist • -S. Korea with U.S. help fights them off • -Remains separated today

  23. The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory” If one nation becomes communist, they will all become communist Syngman Rhee

  24. Section 4 Page 992 War in Southeast Asia

  25. Vietnam War • Vietnam was controlled by communist leader Ho Chi Minh • Split up during Cold War • North was communist, South was not • Many Vietnamese want to be put back together • They fight to push U.S and other foreigners out

  26. Quotes from Ho Chi Minh “The Vietnamese people deeply love independence, freedom and peace. But in the face of United States aggression they have risen up, united as one man.” “You will kill 10 of our men, and we will kill 1 of yours, and in the end it will be you who tire of it.”

  27. Guerilla Warfare • U.S. sends over 500,000 troops to help S. Vietnam • Russia and China give $ and weapons to N. Vietnam Viet Cong (communist rebels) hid in jungles, swamps and tunnels.

  28. U.S. Withdraws • U.S. wins most of the battles • Suffers heavy losses however without gaining much • Many people oppose war at home • U.S. leaves, N. Vietnam takes over

  29. Section 5 The Cold War Ends p. 1000

  30. Command Economy • The government makes all economic decisions • Soviet Union uses this to control citizens, limits freedom • People had inferior products and saw no improvement • Standard of living was low • 1985, new leader Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power • Ends censorship and restructures government for more openness (Glasnost)

  31. Soviet Union Falls *1991, Soviet Union breaks apart into 12 separate countries *Many Nationalist groups call for independence U.S. is the only “superpower” left after winning the Cold War.

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