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MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS 11 th Edition. By Mark Hirschey. Demand Estimation. Chapter 6. Chapter 6 OVERVIEW. Demand Curve Estimation Identification Problem Interview and Experimental Methods Regression Analysis Measuring Regression Model Significance

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## MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS 11 th Edition

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**MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS 11th Edition**By Mark Hirschey**Demand Estimation**Chapter 6**Chapter 6OVERVIEW**• Demand Curve Estimation • Identification Problem • Interview and Experimental Methods • Regression Analysis • Measuring Regression Model Significance • Measures of Individual Variable Significance**simultaneous relation**identification problem consumer interview market experiments regression analysis deterministic relation statistical relation time series cross section scatter diagram linear model multiplicative model simple regression model multiple regression model standard error of the estimate (SEE) correlation coefficient coefficient of determination degrees of freedom corrected coefficient of determination F statistic t statistic two-tail t tests one‑tail t tests Chapter 6KEY CONCEPTS**Demand Curve Estimation**• Simple Linear Demand Curves • The best estimation method balances marginal costs and marginal benefits. • Simple linear relations are useful for demand estimation. • Using Simple Linear Demand Curves • Straight-line relations give useful approximations.**Identification Problem**• Changing Nature of Demand Relations • Demand relations are dynamic. • Interplay of Supply and Demand • Economic conditions affect demand and supply. • Shifts in Demand and Supply • Curve shifts can be estimated. • Simultaneous Relations**Interview and Experimental Methods**• Consumer Interviews • Interviews can solicit useful information when market data is scarce. • Interview opinions often differ from actual market transaction data. • Market Experiments • Controlled experiments can generate useful insight. • Experiments can become expensive.**Regression Analysis**• What Is a Statistical Relation? • A statistical relation exists when averages are related. • A deterministic relation is true by definition. • Specifying the Regression Model • Dependent variable Y is caused by X. • X variables are independently determined from Y. • Least Squares Method • Minimize sum of squared residuals.**Measuring Regression Model Significance**• Standard Error of the Estimate SEE) increases with scatter about the regression line.**Goodness of Fit, r and R2**• r = 1 means perfect correlation; r = 0 means no correlation. • R2 = 1 means perfect fit; R2 = 0 means no relation. • Corrected Coefficient of Determination, R2 • Adjusts R2 downward for small samples.**F statistic**• Tells if R2 is statistically significant.**Measures of Individual Variable Significance**t statistics • t statistics compare a sample characteristic to the standard deviation of that characteristic. • A calculated t statistic more than two suggests a strong effect of X on Y (95 % confidence). • A calculated t statistic more than three suggests a very strong effect of X on Y (99 % confidence). • Two-tail t Tests • Tests of effect. • One-Tail t Tests • Tests of magnitude or direction.

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