Beat! Beat! Drums! Walt Whitman
List of all the ways that war is presented as a destructive force in the poem.
Categorize the Disruptions Caused by War • Social events • Family events • Daily life • Commerce • School • Rural areas • Urban areas • Legal system
Make a graphic organizer “Success is Counted Sweetest” “War is Kind” Disruptions Caused by War/ Destructiveness of War “Grass” “Patterns”
Writing Assignment • Select ONE of the four poems in the poetry packet we have been working with in class (“Success is Counted Sweetest”, “War is Kind”, “Grass”, and “Patterns” ). • Each student should write a paragraph of at least 50 words that explains (with evidence from the poem) how the poem presents war as a destructive force. • Students should edit and revise the short paragraphs about the poems with a peer editor. • The individuals or partners should be proofreading to ensure that each paragraph accomplishes the following tasks: • a) that it clearly explains how war is a destructive force in the poem; • b) that it contains specific, accurate references (direct quotes) to the poem that support the thesis (“war as a destructive force”); and • c) that the writer has used correct spelling and grammar throughout the paragraph.
What it says… • Theme- a common thread or repeated idea that is incorporated throughout a literary work. • Purpose- the author’s reason for writing • Subject- what the author is writing about
How it says it… • Structure • Figurative Language
Understanding Poetic Structure • Rhyme • Meter • Figurative Language • Poetic Terms
Rhyme • The repetition of vowel sounds in accented syllables and all syllables that follow (ex. glisten – listen) • When rhyme is found within the same line of poetry, it is internal rhyme • When rhyme is found at the end of lines of poetry, it is end rhyme
Rhyme • The purpose of rhyme is to create a sound cadence for the reader • Poets often create a pattern of end rhyme • This pattern, when identified, is called a rhyme scheme • When determining the rhyme scheme, each rhyming sound is represented by a different letter of the alphabet
Rhyme • Because rhyming is difficult, and to create different effects on the reader, poets also use approximate rhyme • Approximate rhyme is also known as off rhyme, half rhyme, or slant rhyme • These rhymes can be equated to a sharp or flat note in music
Meter • A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry • Each syllable in a line of poetry is labeled with a stress mark, or an unstressed mark • The purpose of meter is to create a recognizable rhythm through a regular sound pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
Meter • Metrical patterns, composed of stressed and unstressed syllabic marks, create a foot of meter • Common metrical feet are: iambic, anapestic, trochaic, and dactylic • Each is a different combination of stressed and unstressed syllabic marks
Meter • An iambic foot of meter is composed of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable • An anapestic foot of meter is composed of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable
Meter • Foot type Style Stress pattern Syllable count • Iamb Iambic Unstressed + Stressed Two • Trochee Trochaic Stressed + Unstressed Two • Spondee Spondaic Stressed + Stressed Two • Anapest or anapaest Anapestic Unstressed + Unstressed + Stressed Three • Dactyl Dactylic Stressed + Unstressed + Unstressed Three • Amphibrach Amphibrachic Unstressed + Stressed + Unstressed Three • Pyrrhic Pyrrhic Unstressed + Unstressed Two
Figurative Language • Using words or phrases to describe something in terms of another thing, with the intent that the description will not be taken literally • The more common figures of speech are simile, metaphor, personification, and symbol • Conceit is an elaborate figure of speech that is often lengthy, and which compares two startlingly different objects
Figurative Language • Sound devices are also a form of figurative language • Some common sound devices are assonance, alliteration, consonance, onomatopoeia • Other figures of speech are • hyperbole- Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally • metonymy- A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as "crown" for "royalty"). Metonymy is also the rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it, as in describing someone's clothing to characterize the individual. Oxymoron- A figure of speech in which incongruous or seemingly contradictory terms appear side by side; a compressed paradox. Synecdoche- A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword)
Poetic Devices and Terms • Allusion is a reference to someone of something known from history, literature, religion, sports, science, etc. – allusion is a device also used in other forms of writing • Apostrophe is a technique a poet uses to address an inanimate object, idea, or person who is dead or absent – apostrophe is also used in other forms of writing • Caesura is a pause or break within a line of poetry • Concrete Poem is a poem in which the words of the poem themselves are arranged in a manner to visually suggest the poem’s subject of meaning
Poetic Devices and Terms • Couplet consists of two rhyming lines of poetry • Lyric Poem is a poem that does not tell a story, but expresses the personal thoughts or feelings of the speaker/poet • Octave is an eight line poem, or more often, the first eight lines of a Petrarchan sonnet • Ode is a lyric poem that is usually very long • Quatrain is a poem consisting of four lines that function as a unit of thought
Poetic Devices and Terms • Refrain is a word, phrase, line, or group of lines in a poem that are repeated for effect several times during a poem • Sestet is a six line poem, especially the last six lines of a Petrarchan sonnet • Sonnet is a fourteen line poem, usually written in iambic pentameter, and following a Petrarchan or Shakespearian structure
Group Work • Create groups based around each of the four poems that you wrote about earlier. • Each group should then subdivide itself, with one subdivision taking on “elements of poetic structure” and the other taking on “elements of figurative language.” • In the smaller groups, identify “elements of poetic structure” and “elements of figurative language” as they apply to your particular poem.
Re- Group(5 minutes) • Regroup based on the assignments of poems and categories. • Within each group, share “elements of poetic structure” and “elements of figurative language” that you found when analyzing your assigned poem.
Independent Writing • Add to the paragraph you wrote earlier, two additional paragraphs: • one paragraph that explains the poem’s structure • and one paragraph that cites examples of at least three uses of figurative language from the poem. Peer Editing and Revision • Check: • That the first paragraph clearly explains how war is a destructive force in the poem; that the second paragraph explains the structure of the poem, and that the third paragraph explains the figurative language used in the poem; and • b) that it contains specific, accurate references (direct quotes) to the poem that support the thesis of each paragraph (see list to the left); and • c) that the writer has used correct spelling and grammar throughout the paragraph. • Revise all three paragraphs: • war as a destructive force, • poetic structure, • figurative language.