Nutrition By Rachel Kim and Luisa Righetti
Carbohydrates: Functions and Types Carbohydrates are a component of food that supplies energy (calories) to the body. - Gives energy to cells • Used in different cells for different purposes • Produces glucose • Metabolizes fat • Leftovers turn to fat 2 Types Simple Carbs - (Sugar) Complex carbs - ( Starches)
Carbohydrates: Facts and examples • Made by plants to store sugars they produce • We take the extra starch and make it into fat • Fat weighs less for storing the energy than starch. • Starches = Sugar molecules hooked together • For every gram of carbohydrates there are four calories Examples include: Sugary cereals, Drink powders, sweets, jams, potatoes, pizza, crackers, flour, grains, fructose and dried fruit.
Fats: Functions and Types • Insulates body and internal organs • Provides energy • Protects vital organs from impact • Transports certain vitamins and minerals • Energy storage in case of starvation • Important component of our cell membrane Types: Unhealthy: Monounsaturated fats, Polyunsaturated fats Healthy: Saturated Fats and Trans fats.
Fats: Facts and examples • The ideal body-fat ratio should be approximately 19-26% of a woman's body weight, and 12-18% of a man's body weight. • Heat, light and oxygen destroy fatty acid. • You'll find 9 calories in every gram of fat • Fat is the 'energy reserve' of animals, plants and humans. • Fat is an important part of a healthy diet • Children need a certain amount of fat for their brains to develop Examples include: Pizza, burgers, Meat, chocolate, sweets, cookies, pastries, ice-cream, deep fried foods and cold coffees/milkshakes.
Protein: Functions and Types Protein builds, maintains, and replaces the tissues in your body. Your muscles, your organs, and your immune system are made up mostly of protein. Used to: • Transport and store molecules • Needed for mechanical support • Immune protection • Control of growth • Control chemical reactions Types of Proteins : Enzymes =proteins that catalyze chemical and biochemical reactions. Hormones- proteins that are responsible for the regulation of many processes in organisms. Transport proteins - These proteins are transporting or store some other chemical compounds and ions.
Protein: Facts and examples • We use the protein to make specialized protein molecules that have specific jobs. • Made of components called amino acids. • Can be used in combination with a higher calorie diet, hence a weight gain • Appetite suppressant. Examples include: • Meat, such as lamb or chicken • Fish, like salmon or tuna • Dairy products, like milk or cheese or eggs • Soya beans or pulses • Cereals and grain foods, like rice or pasta, oats and muesli • Seeds, like sunflower seeds
Fibre Functions: • Prevents constipation • Keeps digestive system healthy and working • Reduces blood sugar swings Types: Naturally occurring fibre, Soluble fibre, Insoluble fibre, Functional fibres - Helps reduce high blood cholesterol -Keeps blood sugar levels stable. -Plays an important role in helping us stay fit Examples: Whole wheat, grain products, fruits and vegetables
Vitamins • body needs so it can work properly • helps you grow • 2 types • fat soluble • water soluble • body gets vitamins from the food we eat • helps grow and develop body • fat soluble • Stored in fat tissue and liver • carriers take from body, when needed • water soluble • Not stored in body • Travels through bloodstream • Whatever is not needed come out as urine (pee)
Vitamins • Vitamin A • helps with eyesight • helps body fight infections • cell growth • builds healthy skin and hair • examples: liver, orange fruits and vegetables, and etc.. • Vitamin B • makes energy • builds protein in body • makes red blood cells • helps function nervous tissue • examples: vegetables, dairy, whole grains, meats, etc.. • Vitamin C • helps heal body • keeps body tissues (gums and muscles) in good shape • holds cells together • examples: citrus fruits, vegetables, and etc..
Vitamins • Vitamin D • absorbs calcium • forms strong teeth and bones • skin absorbs it from sunlight • examples: milk, fish, egg yolks, liver, and etc.. • Vitamin E • protects tissues and red blood cells from damage • helps prevent damage of vit A,B • examples: grains, vegetables, vegetable oils, wheat, and etc.. • Vitamin K • “clotmaster” • stops body from bleeding • examples: vegetables, dairy, grains, and etc..
Minerals • helps body grow, develop, and stay healthy • makes hormones and keep a normal heartbeat • performs different functions • build strong bones • solid substance→ natural • 2 types • macro minerals • trace minerals • Macro Minerals • body needs large amounts • examples: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, and etc.. • Trace Minerals • body needs small amounts • examples: iron, manganese, copper, iodine, fluoride, and etc..
Minerals • Calcium • builds strong bones • helps build strong, healthy teeth • functions nervous system • examples: dairy, vegetables, fish, and etc.. • Iron • carries oxygen from lungs to blood cells • examples: meat, vegetables, fish, enriched grains, and etc.. • Potassium • works muscles, nervous system properly • makes water in body right amount • examples: vegetables, citrus fruits, dried fruits, legumes, and etc.. • Zinc • helps fight off illness and infections • cell growth • heals wounds • examples: meat, seafood, liver, dairy, grains, and etc..
Minerals • Phosphorus • healthy bones and teeth • energy • balances acid in body • examples: dairy, meat, grain, and etc.. • Magnesium • healthy bones • functions nervous system • energy • examples: dairy, meat, fish, vegetables, and etc.. • Copper • metabolism • helps function blood vessels • examples: meat, vegetables, grains, and etc..
Water • half of body weight • survive a few days without it • carries oxygen to all cells • part of immune system • fights off illness • digitises foods • gets rid of waste • main ingredient of perspiration (sweat) • no calories • dehydration→sickness • dehydration= not enough water
Bibliography • www.kidshealth.org • www.wikipedia.org • www.fibrefacts.com • www.answers.yahoo.com • http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/protein/