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High efficiency power sources. I. Syratchev, CERN. ‘Classical’ way of designing the klystron. AJDisk 9.0 (1-beam klystron optimised by C. Marrelli).
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High efficiency power sources I. Syratchev, CERN
‘Classical’ way of designing the klystron AJDisk 9.0 (1-beam klystron optimised by C. Marrelli) 𝜇Perveance = 0.21 Pout ≈ 2.3 MW Efficiency 78. % During optimisation, the tuning of all parameters is done to provide the highest bunched current harmonics at the entrance of the input cavity. The obtained solution is not unique and does not give enough information about the inner structure of the bunch, which also must be optimal in terms change density and electron velocities distributions to get highest efficiency.
Scaling of the klystron parameters Dedicated campaign to make parametric study of the high efficiency klystrons was conducted by Chiara Marrelli (Manchester/CERN) using 1D klystron computer code AJDisk: Companies choice Perveance indicates how much beam current comes out of the cathode when the voltage V is applied between the cathode and the anode. Perveance can be considered as well as a measure of space charge forces. Lower perveance beam with weaker space-charge forces enables stronger bunching and thus consequently higher efficiency.
90% efficient klystron. To achieve very high efficiency, peripheral electrons should receive much stronger relative phase shift than the core electrons and this could happens only, if the core of the bunch experiences oscillations due to the space charge forces, whilst the peripherals approach the bunch centre monotonously.
Personal recollection of the processes in the high efficiency klystron (for illustration only) Electron velocity/density The ‘ideal’ bunching (the core oscillations are switched off to simplify illustration). Final compression and bunch rotation prepare ‘perfect’ congregating bunch. After deceleration all the electrons have identical velocities. Mission accomplished
20 MW, 8 beams 5 cavities MBK originally simulated by Chiara Marrelli 20 MW, 8 beams 5 cavities MBK with ‘core oscillations’ simulated by Andrey Baikov
The klystron performance curves Red colour: 20 MW, 8 beams MBK originally simulated by Chiara Marrelli. The perveance was changed by changing both the current and voltage (fixed number of beams). Blue colour: 20 MW, 180 kV MBK simulated by Andrey Baikov (‘global’ optimum with core oscillations). The perveance was change by changing the number of beams (fixed voltage). Ultimate performance? 6 cavities 5 cavities When going towards bigger number of the cavities (from 5 to 6 on our case), the klystron efficiency shows some saturation features. Technically, it allows to choose reasonably high perveance as an operating point without considerable reduction in efficiency. However the 1D code simulations results for the tubes with high perveance are less confident (overestimated).
Recipe#1 for 20 MW. 80% efficient L-band MBK for CLIC Stay at a low micro-perveance. Choose as many beams as you comfortable with: - Reduces the operating voltage (tube length) - Reduces the beam compression (beam dynamics) - Reduces current/beam, weaker magnetic focusing 3. Use all the tricks explained previously K=0.2 K=0.3 K=0.3 K=0.2 Example of the CLIC MBK designed using ‘conventional’ MBK gun technology (8 beams). Simulated by I. Guzilov Bunch core oscillations Collecting outside electrons Tube length 3.0 m; 162kV; 80.3%
BAC method. I. Guzilov In order to intensify the process of the core oscillations, one can use the external forces delivered by additional specially tuned idle cavities– this is the base of BAC method Each oscillation in BAC method is prepared in 3 stages: - first cavity gap – traditional bunching; - second cavity gap - alignment velocity spread of electrons; - third cavity gap – collecting the peripherals. This method of spatial enhancing of the core oscillations frequency allows reducing at least by factor of 2 the length of the interaction space for high efficiency klystrons.
Recipe#2 for 20 MW. 80% efficient L-band MBK for CLIC Stay at a low micro-perveance. Choose as many beams as you comfortable with: - Reduces the operating voltage (tube length) - Reduces the beam compression (beam dynamics) - Reduces current/beam, weaker magnetic focusing 3. Use all the tricks explained previously 4. Employ BAC method to reduce the tube length. K=0.2 K=0.3 K=0.3 K=0.2 Example of the CLIC MBK designed using advanced MBK gun technology (30 beams). Simulated by I. Guzilov Bunch core oscillations Tube length reduced to 1.2 m (2.5 times); 116 kV; 80.3%
High efficiency with high perveance! New idea from Franck Peaugeropens path into high frequency single beam tubes. 12 MW X-band klystron Kl-adi(adiabatic)-stron = « KLADISTRON » 20 cavities Efficiency 78 % Length 285 mm perveance of 1.4 µA/V1.5 (170 kV – 100 A)
The 12 GHz - 12 MW klystron prototype planning (CEA/CERN/Industry) 2014 2015 2016 2017 Preliminary design Commissioningpreparation (advanced simulations) Detailed design and drawings Convergence on simulation codes Fabrication Choice of the number of cavities Design Review Tests Superconductingsolenoid PhDstudent 12
Strategy for high-efficiency high RF power klystron development L-band, Long pulse (TLEP, proton linac) >30 beams; <30 kV? ??? years 4 years L-band. CLIC. 30 beams; 116 kV <60 beams; 60 kV 2/gun+3years L-band CLIC/Double C. Gun 12 beams; 164 kV 1.5 year Optionally – gun with controlled electrode (2.5 kV) S-band Demonstrator 40 beams; <60 kV L-band CLIC 6-8 beams; 164 kV Exploring X-band MBK L-band ILC 6 beams; 116 kV SC solenoid 2 years Exists 2 40 6 20
Technology demonstrator tube. To be built in 1 year (Low risk approach) KIU-147. 40 beams, S-band, 6 MW, 52 kV, 50% with PPM reversed focusing The PPM reversed focusing drawback: At each reverse of magnetic field there are ~5-7% of beam losses. With two periods, the expected efficiency will be dropped down to ~60 % . At a positive side – klystron will be very light , only 90 kg (0.8 m long). Considering that 60 kV is safe limit for operation at air (discharge along the gun insulator), klystron will be able to deliver up to 8 MW peak RF power. With 40 kW average power, it will be able to operate at 1 kHz and 5 microsecond long pulses. Keep the gun, focusing system and collector Replace the klystron body (the same length). Expected efficiency 74.2% : simulated expected
Special thanks to: Andrey Baikov Igor Guzilov Chiara Marrelli Franck Peauger