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The Effect of major on sleep quality among undergraduate students

The Effect of major on sleep quality among undergraduate students. Amanda Cheetham , Brandie Parker, Divine Sebuharara. Review of Literature.

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The Effect of major on sleep quality among undergraduate students

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  1. The Effect of major on sleep quality among undergraduate students

    Amanda Cheetham, Brandie Parker, Divine Sebuharara
  2. Review of Literature Sleep is essential for wellbeing & sleep habits affect stress, grades, relationships, health habits etc. (Noland, Price, Dake, & Telljohann, 2009). Sleep quality has been shown to impact stress & academic performance (Barber, 2010). Significant discrepancy between males and females in regards to sleep quality, quantity & academic stress (Galambos, Howard, & Maggs, 2010).
  3. Review of literature Sleep deprived students are more likely to choose “easier math problems” in a study (Gaultney, 2010). Will sleepy students choose easier courses? Easier majors? Higher number of stressful days resulted in fewer days of academic effort (Galambos, Howard, & Maggs, 2010). Academic stress is a significant indicator of poor sleep quality (Lund et al., 2010). Past research has studied the effects of sleep on students’ GPA without comparing the different academic workloads of the students (Gaultney, 2010).
  4. Research Question Does school of major affect sleep quality among undergraduate students at Ithaca College? Independent Variable = School of Major Dependent Variable = Sleep Quality
  5. Purpose Determine the differences in sleep quality between students of the five academic schools on campus. College students report sleeping less hours during high stress periods and report lower levels of academic effort during stressful time periods(Glambos, Howard & Maggs, 2010). This study aims to explore the connection between sleep and academics.
  6. Rationale There is a lot of research on sleep, stress, and academic performance, but little research has been done determining the effects of academic major on sleep quality. Studies have been done with regards to sleeping habits of medical students/nursing students. One specific study looked at the effects of sleep on business students (Tsui, & Wing, 2009). Our study will compare the sleeping habits of several academic programs. Sleep quality has been found to significantly affect stress and performance (Barber, 2010).
  7. Methods - Procedure Randomly selected fifty IC professors(by assigning numbers and using www.randomizer.org) Contacted IC professors to distribute the survey to their undergraduate students via a link in an e-mail. Online survey for students to complete was open November 2nd to November 26th (~3 weeks) Collected/analyzed data using the SPSS and scoring sheets included with the PSQI surveys Interpreted the results
  8. Methods - Participants Using a list of undergraduate professors at IC (sorted by academic school) each professor was assigned a number. 10 professors from each school were randomly selected (www.randomizer.org) to be distributors of the survey. Initially, 5 professors were contacted and the other 5 selected were used as alternates The professors were asked to encourage their undergraduate students to participate in the online survey.
  9. Methods – Materials We used the survey system Qualtrics to collect data. The students received an e-mail including information about the study and a link that brought them to the survey. Participants provided consent by clicking “next” after reading the introduction. Using Qualtrics anonymity and confidentiality for participants was ensured.
  10. Method - Instrument Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Measures 7 components of sleep & its effects Uses 19 self-rated questions & 5 questions rated by bed partner or roommate (if available) to measure these components over the past month Research indicates the PSQI has high construct validity (Grandner, Kripke, Yoon, & Youngdtedt, 2006),(Carpenter & Andrykowski, 1997) PSQI scores are highly correlated with sleep quality and sleep problems (Carpenter & Andrykowski, 1997) Internal consistency reliability values [Cronbach’s alpha coefficient] of r= 0.79 – 0.83(Carpenter & Andrykowski, 1997)
  11. sURVEY The survey took approximately 5-10 minutes to be completed 31 questions 24 from the PSQI 4 Demographic 3 regarding academic stress/workload 70 surveys collected Incomplete and outlier surveys removed One survey consisted of an exploratory/undecided major One responder identified as transgender 54 surveys used
  12. Analysis Scores for the PSQI were computed using the scoring system included with the survey Multiple linear Regression IV: School of major, gender, class year & stress level DV: PSQI Scores
  13. Hypothesis We predicted that there would be a significant difference between academic departments in regards to sleep quality due to differences in workload.
  14. Results No significant relationship found between school of major and sleep quality. However, significant results were found between reported stress level and sleep quality. Significance level = .003 R2 = .159
  15. Self-reported stress 50% of participants rate stress 8+ 46.2% males & 51.2% females 44% Communication 36.8% HPPE 33.3% Humanities & Sciences 65.2% Music
  16. Psqi scores Range 2-13 A score greater than 5 indicates sleep difficulties 64.8% of participants had PSQI score > 5
  17. predicted PSQI score PSQI score = 2.206 - .618(self-reported stress level) The standard error of estimate is 2.437 95% of the time, estimated PSQI score within 4.874 points of actual PSQI score
  18. implications Distribution Generalizability Incorrect wording Other factors Access to objective data collection
  19. conclusion Further studies should look more closely at the link between stress levels and class year. Also, more research should examine the link between academic major and sleep quality. Research remains inconclusive in this area of stress and sleep habits of college students.
  20. references Barber, L.K., Munz, D.C., Bagsby, P.G. & Powell, E.D. (2010). Sleep consistency and sufficiency: are both necessary for less psychological strain? Stress and Health, 26, 186-193. Carpenter, J. S., & Andrykowski, M. A. (1998). Psychometric evaluation of the pittsburgh sleep quality index. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 45(1), 5-13. Dusselier, L., Dunn, B., Wang, Y., Shelley, M., & Whalen, D. F. (2005). Personal, health, academic, and environmental predictors of stress for residence hall students. Journal of American College Health, 54(1), 15-24. Galambos, N. L., Howard, A. L., & Maggs, J. L. (2010). Rise and fall of sleep quantity and quality with student experiences across the first year of university. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(2), 342-349. Gaultney, J. F. (2010). The prevalence of sleep disorders in college students: Impact on academic performance. Journal of American College Health, 59(2), 91-97. Grandner, M.A., Kripke, D.F., Yoon, I.Y. & Youngstedt, S.D. (2006). Criterion validity of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index: investigation in a non clinical sample. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 4, 129-136. DOI:10.1111/j.1479-8425.2006.00207.x Lund, H.G., Reider, B.D., Whiting, A.B., Prichard, J.R. Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, (46), 124-132. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.06.016 Nolan, H., Price, J.H., Dake, J. & Telljohann, S.K. (2009). Adolescents’ sleep behaviors and perception of sleep. Journal of School Health, 79(5), 224- 230. Tsui,Y.Y., Wing, Y.K. A study on the sleep patterns and problems of university business students in Hong Kong. Journal of American College Health, (58)2, 167-176. http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7GGIH&biw=1230&bih=542&tbm=isch&tbnid=DbMhXbZ8LMu3WM:&imgrefurl=http://www.clipartof.com/portfolio/toonaday/illustration/cartoon-tired-man-falling-asleep-while-studying-1048698.html&docid=J_nU1PxeU5Vd5M&imgurl=http://images.clipartof.com/small/1048698-Royalty-Free-RF-Clip-Art-Illustration-Of-A-Cartoon-Tired-Man-Falling-Asleep-While-Studying.jpg&w=450&h=252&ei=INWPUMqTE4yB0AGziIHIDw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=453&sig=108481732578364035328&page=1&tbnh=116&tbnw=208&start=0&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0,i:99&tx=152&ty=63 http://www.google.com/imgres?um=1&hl=en&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7GGIH&biw=1230&bih=542&tbm=isch&tbnid=XMoHTm51reSZFM:&imgrefurl=http://rakadd.wordpress.com/tag/adhd/&docid=CnH_AGIYAnGUGM&imgurl=http://rakadd.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/test-cartoon-picture20testanxiety1.gif&w=233&h=270&ei=hdqPUN9j7enRAZXEgJAO&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=94&sig=108481732578364035328&page=1&tbnh=177&tbnw=153&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0,i:83&tx=80&ty=136
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