Schema Activator 3/10/11 • Take out the list of scenarios we reviewed last class. Rank the initial behaviors in each scenario by how socially unacceptable they are. 1= the most socially acceptable, 5= the least socially unacceptable.
Schema Activator 3/8/11 • Last class we read about the Nacirema, or an “outsiders” view of American culture. • Each group will choose an example of material American culture to analyze from an outsider’s perspective like the author did with the Nacirema. • Answer the following questions: • What is the purpose of this object? • How is it used by the society? • Why is it important to the society? • What does this material object tell us about the nonmaterial culture of the society (beliefs, values, etc)?
Nacirema Reading • Together:Use a highlighter or underline examples of material or nonmaterial culture in the Nacirema society. • Independently:Go back and label each example “M” if it relates to material culture or “N” if it relates to nonmaterial culture.
Scenarios • Read your scenario; each has an initial behavior and a reaction • Is this initial behavior socially acceptable? Why or why not?
Nonmaterial Culture • Essential vocabulary • Values • Norms • Sanctions (positive and negative) • Folkways • Mores • Taboo
Values • The values by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly • They guide most of our actions. • Are long range commitments to ends that people share culturally. • Abstract and general. • Describe our "moral" goals in society. • Indicate the standards by which people define their ideas about what is desirable in life.
Norms • The expectations (or rules of behavior) that develop out of a group’s values • Can be laws, but they also can be procedures, morals, customs or expectations. • Often are outward expressions of a society's deeply held and shared values. • Are important for defining boundaries. • Ex. In order to belong to a gang, a potential gang member has to learn the "norms" of the gang. Norms define us and them.
Sanctions • The reactions people receive for following or breaking norms • Positive sanctions:approval of a norm • Material= trophy, money, prize • Nonmaterial= hugs, smiles, high fives • Negative sanctions: disapproval for breaking a norm • Material = being fined in court • Nonmaterial= harsh words, gestures (frowns), stares, clenched jaws
Folkways and Mores • Folkways– Norms that are not strictly enforce • Sanctions are minimal • Correct manners. • Appropriate dress. • Proper eating behavior. • Mores – Norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought to be essential to the core values of the group • Sanctions are present • Flag burning. • Cheating.
Taboo • A norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated • Severe sanctions; such as prison, banishment, or death • Bigamy • Incest • Cannibalism
American Core values • America is very diverse • No matter the religion, race, or socioeconomic background, all Americans are believed to share 15 common core values according to sociologist Robin Williams