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Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities

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Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities

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  1. Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities World Bank EASES Briefing April 19, 2004

  2. Presentation Outline • Context - Why this initiative • How to solve the problem • What is in this initiative • List of Activities • Knowledge Management, Projects and Program, Networking • BAQ 2002, 2003, 2004 • Next Phase of activities

  3. Air quality in most cities of the developing world ….

  4. Air quality they deserve… .... and the clean air they need

  5. 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Seoul Pune Tokyo Busan Osaka Manila Jakarta Kolkata Mumbai Bangkok Colombo Shanghai New Delhi Singapore Hong Kong Chongqing Kathmandu The Problem: 2000/2001 PM10 SPM NO2 SO2 concentration in µg/m3 Source: Benchmarking Report on Air Quality in Asian cities Phase 2, 2003

  6. EnvironmentalRisks Global Estimate AsianEstimate Asia as %of Global Unsafe Water 1,730,000 730,000 42% Urban Outdoor Air 799,000 487,000 61% Indoor Air 1,619,000 1,025,000 63% Lead 234,000 88,000 37% The Impact of the ProblemPremature Deaths “Air pollution puts the lives of millions at risk in Asian cities”

  7. Burden of Urban Air Pollutiondisability adjusted life-years per 1000 people Latin America Europe & Central Asia Middle East & N. Africa Sub-Saharan Africa South Asia East Asia & Pacific 0 5 10 15 Source: Lvovsky, 2002

  8. Problem Identification • Main problem is PM10 and PM2.5 • Vehicles – especially diesel and 2-stroke two and three wheelers are important contributors • Fuel quality, driving style and lack of maintenance important reasons why these vehicles are a problem

  9. How to solve the problem? • Better information for policy makers • Consensus on issues and actions • Political commitment & rigorous enforcement • Identification of technical solution(s) • Economic analysis of options • Macro-policy in place: trade, lube, taxes, etc. • Institutional cooperation: Private, Public etc. • Learn from international experience

  10. Air Pollution Impact of Transport • Important contributor to air pollution • Lead from gasoline—a problem of the past in most countries in Asia as they have phased out leaded gasoline (Indonesia left) • Two-stroke motorcycles mostly phased out (issue in the Philippines, Indonesia and South Asia) • Fine and ultrafine particles in vehicle exhaust—main concern now • Ozone precursors (HC and NOx) in vehicle exhaust—emerging problem • Current reality • Old polluting fleets and low replacement rates – specifically Diesel • Lack of vehicle maintenance culture • Weak administrative capacity to regulate and monitor • Future challenge • Rising income and motorization will increase congestion, pollution and traffic safety problems unless concerted measures are taken

  11. Pollution The Kuznet’s Curve Per-Capita GDP Why: Kuznet’s Curveopportunities for cities to bypass a BAU • developing cost-effective analytical frameworks, exploring innovative opportunities and learning from other city experiences...

  12. CAI-Asia Goals CAI Asia promotes and demonstrates innovative ways to improve the air quality of Asian Cities through sharing experiences and building partnerships • Sharing knowledge and experiences • Capacity building • Improving policy and regulatory frameworks - regional • Assisting cities in formulating and implementing integrated air quality management systems • Piloting projects to encourage innovation Collaborators: WBI, EASTR, EASUR, EASEG, DEC, ENV

  13. CAI-Asia Networking Philosophy Local CAI-Asia network Local CAI-Asia network APMA CAI-Asia Kitakyushu Initiative IES/US-EPA Local CAI-Asia network Local CAI-Asia network

  14. Activity Areas 1. Knowledge and Information • Clean Air web-site and newsletter • Regional and local media campaigns • Publication of air quality data, technical papers, case studies, proceedings • Thematic and/or city-specific workshops • Training courses

  15. Activity Areas 2. Regional Policies and Standards • Air pollution control regulations and standards • Related technical specifications to help reduce air pollution emissions • Energy efficiency policies • Sustainable financing mechanisms and fiscal policies for air pollution control

  16. Activity Areas 3. Studies and Pilot Projects • Thematic studies on key issues (e.g. emissions inventories and monitoring, modeling, transport management, etc.) • City-level formulation and implementation of integrated air quality action plans • Technical exchanges among cities • Pilot projects to implement innovations in policies and technologies

  17. Mainstreaming Air Quality Management at the World Bank • Hanoi Urban Transport, Bicycle path in MMUTRIP • GEF co-financing for China sustainable urban transport strategy and a multi-city action program AAA and TA • Air Quality monitors for the Philippines and Thailand • Country Development Partnership dialogue on Environment in Thailand • DIESEL pilot program – tested in Bangkok and to be applied in other cities • Dhaka Three Wheeler Phaseout – 40% improvement • Car free day at the World Bank and other organizations • Influencing the Air Quality Thematic group at the Bank • Transport forum and internal training of Bank staff

  18. PM2.5 concentrations in Dhaka Declines by 41% because of Two Stroke Phaseout PM2.5 Average 350 300 250 200 Microgram/m3 150 100 50 0 1/2/2003 1/4/2003 1/6/2003 12/27/2002 12/29/2002 12/31/2002 12/25/2002

  19. Testimonials from TTLs in the region

  20. Discussion: Next Phase? • Simplified lending framework - cross sectoral issues to be dealt through a strategic sector approach • Identify and transfer management to the region • Explore new financing opportunities - GEF, CF, Italian CTF for China, etc. • Assess cost-effectiveness of different emission reduction strategies and increase understanding • Involve local agencies in the evaluating international experiences and its applicability in their country

  21. Next Phase cont. • Regional monitor for Air Quality • Respond to client requests for air quality programs • Develop air pollution projects or mainstream into existing Bank operations • Harmonization of regional standards on fuels and vehicles • External evaluation of CAI-Asia (ongoing) • Any other ideas???

  22. For further information contact http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia