QT Coverage Chapter 9: The Culture of Medieval Europe 1. Interest of Learning Revives (Vic’s Group) 2. New Styles Develop in Medieval Art (GJ’s Group) 3. The Middle Age Draws to a Close (Brylle’s Group) Chapter 15: Renaissance and Reformation 1. The Renaissance Brings Change (Mon, Oct 11) 2. The Renaissance Spirit (Literature and Art) (Wed, Oct 13) 3. The Reformation Ends Religious Unity in Western and Central Europe (Thurs, Oct 15) PT Deadline: October 18
ReviewDo you remember? Papacy William of Normandy Absolute Monarchy Card inals Three Field System!
End of the Middle Ages What are the factors? • Famine • Plague • Peasant Revolt • Hundred Years’ War • Decline of Papal Authority
Famine • The early productivity during the early Middle Ages didn’t continue. • Ways on how to make land fertile were not yet known. • Consequence: Crops lost fertility and became unproductive. • Result: Shortage, starvation
Plague (Black Death or Bubonic Plague) • Black death was the most terrible plague that struck Europe. • Black Death- plague created by fleas in rat’s fur. • Called black because of the black spots formed. • Started in Asia in 1331-1332. • Moved west across Russia. • The ships from Black Sea, when they returned to Italy, they brought with them the plague.
Plague (Black Death) • By 1348, it spread to Europe in an increasing speed. • 20 million people or a third of Europe’s population died. • Many people believed that God is punishing them. • Consequence: Many whipped themselves as penance, some relied to mysticism, and some killed Jews.
Graphic Description: • "In men and women alike it first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain tumours in the groin or armpits, some of which grew as large as a common apple, others as an egg...From the two said parts of the body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to propagate and spread itself in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute and numerous. As the gavocciolo had been and still was an infallible token of approaching death, such also were these spots on whomsoever they showed themselves."
This was followed by acute fever and vomiting of blood. Most victims died two to seven days after initial infection. David Herlihy identifies another potential sign of the plague: freckle-like spots and rashes which could be the result of flea-bites.
Some Europeans targeted "various groups such as Jews, friars, foreigners, beggars, pilgrims", lepers and Roma, thinking that they were to blame for the crisis. Lepers, and other individuals with skin diseases such as acne or psoriasis, were singled out and exterminated throughout Europe.
Peasant Revolt • Due to the plague, industries became idle. • Since the nobles relied too much to the industries which became unproductive already, nobles needed money. • To satisfy that, increase the tax. • Consequence: Peasants resisted and fought back.
Peasant Revolt • Revolt of peasants in England was led by Wat Tyler and John Ball in 1381. • It was suppressed by the King’s men. • Other revolts happened in major towns like Ghent, Florence, and Paris, but all were put down.
100 YEAR WAR • Battles flared up sporadically and took place mainly because of disagreements concerning the legitimate successor to the French crown. • The battleground was almost entirely in France. • Map of France in 1453
Hundred Years’ War • The long standing dispute between England and France led to a large scale war. • Cause of the war: Edward III held land since he’s a vassal of the French king. • Edward III also tried to seize the French throne since he’s also a nephew of the king. • During the first phase of war, England defeated France.
Hundred Years’ War • It was due to the new weapon, longbow. • Unlike the traditional crossbow, long bow is a much advantageous. • Longbow can shoot faster and farther. • With this weapon, English foot soldier can easily kill the French cavalry who are only good there. • Also allowed less wealthy men to become soldiers. • This war caused great destruction in France since the war was fought mostly on French land. • Battle of Agincourt- a great triumph for the English.
Hundred Years’ War • This battle gave Henry V, the king of England, most of the part of Northern France. • This also led to the signing of treaty on 1420, wherein the marriage of Henry V and Catherine, king’s daughter was set.
Featured personSt. Joan of Arc • A 17 year old peasant • She received a vision from our Lord that he would be able to save France from English forces. • That’s why she persuaded the Dauphin (French Prince) to let her join the French forces.
Joan of Arc led the French army to victory at Orléans when she was only 17 years old. This event was the turning point in the Hundred Years' War. A peasant girl, Joan became a symbol of national consciousness. At age 19, she was captured and burned as a heretic because she claimed to have been guided by divine voices.
Featured personSt. Joan of Arc • She was accused of heresy and being a witch. • She was executed by burning her on a stake. • Her legacy became the inspiration of the French to continue their fight.
Results of the Hundred Years’ WarFrance Won!!! • Their victory gave them sense of unity. • The previous war also served as an opportunity for the king to increase tax. • With increased tax, can already hire loyal soldiers. • With loyal soldiers, control country more tightly. • Louis XI-successor of Charles VII • Louis is also called as the “Spider” of his opponents due to his shrewd tactics.
Results of the Hundred Years’ WarFrance Won!!! • He defeated Charles the Bold, the duke of Burgundy, by supporting the Swiss campaign against Burgundy. • When Charles the Bold died in battle, he seized the rich lands of Burgundy. • With these tactics, he was able to set the foundation for the French absolute monarchy.
The Defeat of England • The consequence of the war to England was very different. • Monarchy was weakened. • The noble families were the ones who dominated the government. • Henry VI, who inherited the throne when he was infant, became powerless. • The Royal family (Plantagenets Dynasty) was weakened further when it was divided into two factions, the House of York and Lancaster.
The Defeat of England • When the Duke of York challenged Henry VI’s right to the throne, civil war broke out. • This war was called Wars of Roses. • Roses because the emblems of the two factions are both roses (House of York for White roses and House of Lancaster for Red roses) • Henry Tudor, a member of the house of Lancaster won against King Richard III, a member of House of York.
The Defeat of England • He finally ended the war and established his own dynasty whose aim is to unite England. • He became Henry VII. • He married Elizabeth of York. • The dynasty he formed was known as the Tudor dynasty which ruled England from 1485 to 1603.
Decline of Papal Authority • The weakening of papacy started during the rule of Pope Boniface VIII. • He had a conflict with Philip IV of France when Philip defied the Church law of not imposing tax on clergy or to the Church. • Pope Boniface VIII threatened Philip of excommunication but the French king insisted on his decision. • Philip, again, defied the Church by arresting and trying in a civil court a French bishop.
Decline of Papal Authority • When Pope Boniface VIII issued a decree condemning Philip’s acts and insisting that the Pope is more powerful than other rulers, Philip sent his soldiers to arrest the pope. • The pope was released later on but the pope died a month later. • Clement V, a friend of Philip IV, succeeded Boniface. • Not wanting to leave his native land, he built a new capital in Avignon, France.
Decline of Papal Authority • From that time on, the papal capital was in Avignon and all the laws formulated by those popes were influenced by the French king and, thus, favorable to France. • It was known in Italy as Babylonian Captivity. • The papacy returned to Italy by 1377. • The political rivalry for the papacy still persisted. • In 1378, Urban VI was elected by the Romans and not of Cardinals.
Decline of Papal Authority • The cardinals clashed with him and they elected Clement VII instead as a pope. • Clement VII set his capital on Avignon. • The division of the Church into two leadership was known as the Great Schism • Schism means division.
Quiz • Give one of the factors that brought to the end of Middle Ages. • The battle during the Hundred Years’ War that was considered as the great triumph for the English forces. • The 17 year old peasant who saw a vision that she was sent by our Lord to save France from the war and finally, was able to join the French forces. • Give one of the factions of the Plantagenets dynasty. • The event when the church leadership was divided into two.
Bonus • The capital of the papacy after Clement V, the friend of Philip IV, seated as pope. • How do the Italians call the event when the papal capital was transferred to France?
Quiz (Answers) • Answers may vary (bastanandunsa given) • Battle of Agincourt • St. Joan of Arc or Joan of Arc • House of York or House of Lancaster • Great Schism Bonus (Answers) • Avignon, France • Babylonian Captivity
Current Events • The charges against former COMELEC Chairman Benjamin Abalos was withdrawn by the Office of the Ombudsman because according to the said agency, charging a Chairman, which is a high position in the government structure is not part of their jurisdiction.