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Eyjafjallajökull If you fail to plan - you plan to fail

Eyjafjallajökull If you fail to plan - you plan to fail

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Eyjafjallajökull If you fail to plan - you plan to fail

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  1. EyjafjallajökullIf you fail to plan - you plan to fail Víðir Reynisson

  2. For whom? Di sasters Vict ims Preparedness – Response -Recovery

  3. Presentation • Facts about Iceland • Civil protection structure • Preparing for an eruption • Challenges • Lessons identified

  4. Iceland • Land area: 103.000 square kilometers (UK: 241.590 sq. km, Scotland 78.772 sq. km) • Glaciers: 11.922 square kilometers • Coast line: 4.970 km (Scotland 3.218 km) • Total population Dec. 1st 2008:  319.756  (UK 60.943.912 July 2008 est., Scotland 5.144.200 June 2007 est.) • Distance to neighboring countries: Greenland 287 km, Faroe Islands 420 km, Scotland 798 km, Norway 970 km

  5. TheCivilProtection in Iceland • A Civil Protection Act has been in force since 1962. • It was adopted during the cold war. • The purpose was to protect human life and property from disaster, especially during military attack and a nuclear disaster; • No military forces in Iceland • From 1967 natural hazard became the focus of Civil Protection in Iceland • In 1974 volunteers, the Red Cross and SAR agreed to play a specific role in Civil Protection • New legislation since 2008

  6. Working within the crisis cycle Demands great coordination and cooperation

  7. Small nation - large country - many hazards Iceland has one of the highest frequency in the world of natural hazards • Strong motion earthquakes • Avalanches • Glacial outburst floods from sub-glacial volcanic eruptions • Meteorological hazards – violent storms, river flooding, coastal flooding • Transportation risk, buses, ferry's, aircrafts

  8. Hekla • 1981 Krafla • Hekla • 1983 Grímsvötn • 1984 Krafla • Hekla • Grímsvötn • 1998 Grímsvötn • Hekla • Grímsvötn • Eyjafjallajökull • Grímsvötn Volcanic activity Krafla Gríms-vötn Hekla Eyjafjallajökull

  9. Hazard and Risk in Iceland Areas Impacted by Sea Ice Major Landslide Areas Major Snow Avalanche Areas Earthquake Hazard Zones Active Volcanic Systems Jökulhlaup - Glacial River Surges

  10. Scenarios What you know that you do not know What you know What you do not know that you know What you do not know that you do not know

  11. Rescue Teams /volunteers Public Health Fire brigade Red Cross Coast Guard Civil Aviation Local Government Meteorological Office Paramedics Parliament/Ministries Police Civil Protection and Emergency Management VICTIMS DISASTERS interoperability

  12. The Civil Protection Structure Civil Protection and Security Council Preparation of the Civil Protection system Minister of Interior National Commissioner of Police Municipal authorities Monitoring and analysis Civil Protection Committees Mitigation First responders National Crisis Co-ordination Center Operations and co-ordination Local Crisis Co-ordination Center Temporary Service Center Rebuilding Civil Protection Investigation Committee Evaluation

  13. CivilProtection and EmergencyManagement(CPEM) Role: National coordination and command in emergency planning, preparedness and in emergency operations Role: Regional coordination in emergency planning and preparedness Role: Regional coordination and command in emergency operations Role: On scene coordination and command in emergency operations Role: Command and coordination on different tasks on scene

  14. Hazard Assessment: Katla and Eyjafjallajökull (E-15) • Eruption types • Eruption frequency • Glacial outburst floods • Flood routes • Extent and advance of floodwater • Flow volume

  15. Katla and Eyjafjallajökull connected?

  16. Katla Eyjafjallajökull

  17. Hazard Assessment: Katla and Eyjafjallajökull

  18. Patience • From 1994 some signs of seismological activity… • 1999 first plan implemented • 2009 high activity of seismological activity… • Early Mars 2010 increased activity • In the evening of the 20th …

  19. Evening of the 13th of April • Seismic and volcanic activity had stopped in the day before • Scientist presumed that this part was over • But… something was going on west of the eruption site

  20. The night of the 14th • Strong seismic motions under the summit crater of Eyjafjallajökull (E-15)

  21. Kjartan Blöndahl

  22. Evacuation • Eraly in to the night is was decided to activate the evacuation plans in full. • Inhabitants and tourist • Closure of roads • Restriction on flights (10 miles) • Civil protection structure of Iceland activated to its full

  23. Command and coordination • Local chief of police in command in the area (Gold Command) • National coordination in Iceland's NCC • Civil Protection department • Police • 112 • ISAVIA • ICESAR • Coast Gourd • Health authorities • Road administration • Red Cross • Fire Brigade • Scientists • National broadcasting service

  24. Crises communication • To the public • Through phones • Voice mail and SMS • Through media • National broadcasting service is a part of NCC • Website (www.almannavarnir.is) • Other national media • Press releases via e-mails

  25. Crises communication • Almost all ministries were involved from the beginning and all in the coming days • High need for situation information • Our plans aim at minister of interior and the prime minister • Pressure to keep all ministers involved • Lack of coordination in information management to them • Meetings in NCC helped

  26. Crises communication • Numerous agencies involved and both had vital information and needed information • Most of them in our plans • Different opinions on role and responsibility • Pressure on agencies to for fill there role and having not planed for effects like this

  27. Taken by surprise! • In the early hours of the 15th the pressure increased a lot. • The airspace in Europe was shutting down… How to put out the fire??? “you have to do something…”

  28. The frog syndrome

  29. The media?

  30. Crises communication • Set up of a information team -25 persons • Dealing with the media • Dealing with government and foreign embassies • Frequent Situation reports • Notes for ministers and Icelandic embassies abroad

  31. Crises Communications • Or Communications Crises?

  32. Information seeking persons! • E-mails from hundreds of persons seeking information about the situation in Iceland • Is it ok to travel there? • Is my people ok? • Are you going to leave the Island? • New challenges- social media • Blog- twitter-Facebook • “armchair specialist” in new spectrum • Spreading roomers and “ghost stories” • We did not have plan for dealing with this!

  33. Decision making challenges • To take the decision to evacuate is easy • What about to let the people back in? • Pressure from governmental level to prioritize! • Different level and source of information • Political interference • Local political pressure • Business pressure • Air flight operators • Tourist industry

  34. Decision making challenges • When you declare an emergency • When will you recall? • What dos that mean?

  35. Still some danger • Ash/mud floods in rivers • Danger for tourists in mountain area • Danger for roads • Danger for inhabitants? • Danger for grown land • Ash “storms” with low visibility • Danger to health? • Damages to vegetation • Psychological effects