Social Science Research Methods HHG4M Ms. Prouty
Read “What the experts say” on pg.5. Change creates new research opportunities. Identify something from the article that could be a topic of social science research. 1 • Summarize the 8 social science research methods. 2 • Define: scientific method; hypothesis; quantitative research; qualitative research. 1 • Make note of “The Research Process” on page 11. 2 Introduce yourself to Social Science Research
5. Explain the terms primary and secondary research 2 6. How can one identify opinion verses fact? 3 7. Take the “Quick Quiz” on page16 3 8. Summarize Organizing Your Research Presentation found on page 17 4 9. What is informed consent? Why is it important to your research? 3 Cont.
Defining the Question Stage 1
Through brainstorming and preliminary research, identify a question that will focus your inquiry. • Focusing means going from broad to more narrow. • Research questions should be open-ended (you cannot answer with a simple yes or no). Defining the Question
Locating Information Stage 2
You can gather data using primary and/or secondary research and/or sources.
One or more of the eight research methods could be used. • Observation • Participatory Observation • Personal Interview • Phenomenology • Survey • Historical Research • Official Statistics • Review of Literature • Which methods are primary research methods and which are secondary research methods?
Observation • Participatory Observation • Personal Interview • Phenomenology • Survey • Historical Research • Official Statistics • Review of Literature • Which is the best method to test your hypothesis? • Does your research question lead you to a particular research method? Selecting a Research Method
Your first step: • http://homer.ugdsb.on.ca/norwell/library.aspx • What now? • Use Google wisely, and with caution • Read Wikipedia for a backgrounder, but then go to Wikipedia's sources Where can I find resources?
Evaluating Information Stage 3
Bias is motivated by a lack of objectivity, or a prejudiced perspective on a topic. Researchers may be pursuing a specific, desired outcome through biased research practices. The researcher’s personal beliefs, attitudes, interests, and values can influence their research processes. • Bias can be evident in the use of language, especially in discussions that refer to: Checking for Bias
people with disabilities; • People with disabilities should be referred to with respect. • Avoid texts that refer to the individual with labels that imply that the person is entirely characterized by the disability, that the person is ill, or that exaggerate the limitations of the disability. Rather, look for language that acknowledges the individual as a contributing member of society, rather than a dependent patient or client. Types of Bias
racial/ethnic groups; • When racially and ethnically diverse people are identified, writers need to be as accurate as possible with culturally relative, current terminology that is acceptable to the group. Researchers must also be aware of evaluating a group against their own culture, and creating an ethnocentric bias. Types of Bias cont.
gender; • The APA recommends non-sexist language, unless it is relevant to the discussion to refer specifically to minority or special-interest groups. Types of Bias cont.
heterosexism. • Acceptable terminology to avoid heterosexual bias includes “sexual orientation” to refer to the sexual relationships of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. • The terms “lesbians” and “gay men” are preferable to “homosexual” as it is more specific and avoids negative connotations that have become associated with the latter term. Types of Bias cont.
SKIM: Skim the text, noting the subheadings of sections. • HIGHLIGHT: Read through the resource or article, highlight important information and take brief notes. • MAIN POINTS: In your own words, write down the main points from each section of the resource or article. • SUPPORT POINTS: Write down the key supporting points for the main topics of the resource or article. How to Read an Academic Article