Who was Stephen Toulmin? • March 1922 – December 2009 • Author, Educator, Philosopher • Created theories to deal with practical issues using moral reasoning. • Developed a system to break down any type of arguments and the assumptions that surround it. • Toulmin has influenced philosophy, rhetoric, and computer science.
Claim Definition of Claim: An assertion usually supported with evidence. Usually includes a support, refute, or qualify statement. Example: Cell phones are a distraction in school.
Grounds(Evidence) • Definition of Grounds: Evidence provided to bolster the claim and support the warrant. • Backing: In 2010, cell phone violations were the second most disciplined offense at Crestwood High School.
Warrant (Rule) • Definition of Warrant: the implied statement that creates a logical connection between the claim and the evidence; the warrant explains how the evidence supports the claim • Example: Even though cell phones are banned from school, it is assumed all students carry a cell phone with them.
Backing • Definition of Backing: support or explanation for the warrants, often characterized by the word “because”; backing is the kind of evidence needed • Example: Even though cell phones are banned from school, it is assumed all students carry a cell phone with them because their parents want to be able to reach them.
Rebuttal (Counter argument) • Definition of Rebuttal:an answer that challenges or refutes a claim. Rebuttals may also be offered by writers who anticipate objections to the claims or evidence they offer. • Rebuttal Example: Parents may argue all students should carry cell phones with them in case of an emergency.
Qualifier • Definition of Qualifier: A word, or phrase, that limits the scope of a claim: (Probably, Usually, Sometimes, In most cases, etc.) • Qualifier: In most cases, it is highly unlikely an emergency will happen in school. Furthermore, the school could always contact parents making a phone call using a land line.
Create a Toulmin Model on your own Qualifier – specific limits to you claim or warrant. Grounds – reasons or evidence that supports the claim. Claim – The position or claim being argued for. Warrant – implied or stated principle that connects the grounds to the claim. Rebuttal – counter arguments to the claim or warrant
Paperless School Scenario • State a Claim, the Grounds, and a Warrantsupporting, refuting, or qualifying a CHS School Board initiative requiring all students to submit papers online or receive a detention.
Paperless School Scenario cont’d • Claim: Students should not be required to submit paper online because some families do not have computers and it would cause an undo financial burden for those families. • Grounds (Evidence): The average computer costs over $500 and would be unaffordable to many families • Warrant (Rule): As a rule, families with children preparing to enter college do not have supplemental funds for large purchases, such as computers.
Please write a Paraphrase of the ToulminModel of Argumentaion