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Anaesthesia for the high risk patient Is een onderdeel van het “Risico management” in anesthesie

Anaesthesia for the high risk patient Is een onderdeel van het “Risico management” in anesthesie

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Anaesthesia for the high risk patient Is een onderdeel van het “Risico management” in anesthesie

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  1. Anaesthesia for the high risk patientIs een onderdeel van het “Risico management” in anesthesie J P Mulier MD PhD Diensthoofd Anesthesie AZ sint Jan Brugge-Oostende Geafilieerd onderzoeker KULeuven President ESPCOP Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  2. risico • Is een kans op een gekend verlies, complicatie, stoornis • Gemeten naar impact en frequentie • Is een onzekerheid voor een individu • Is een zekerheid voor een groep Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  3. Identification of the high-risk surgical patient. Non patient factors: • Experience • Availability of appropriately experienced surgeons and anaesthesiologists • Hospital case volume • Surgeons case volume • Timing of surgery • At night higher risks • Availability of basic equipments • Type of surgery Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  4. Identification of the high-risk surgical patient. Patient factors I • Patient type: • Gender • Males higher infection, septic shock, mortality, • Females worser after IPPV, vascular surgery • Age • Very young and very old • Race • No anesthesia risk factor • Genetic predisposition • No information yet Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  5. Identification of the high-risk surgical patient. Patient factors II • Clinical condition • an unstarved patient with difficult intubation for emergency surgery, • the emergency caesarean section • fractured neck of femur, • myopathic conditions, • malignant hyperthermia, • hereditary mastocystosis, • latex allergy, • leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm, • Anemia • obesity Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  6. Identification of the high-risk surgical patient. Patient factors III • Medical diseases • Cardio vascular diseases, • Coronary artery disease or Myocardial ischemia • Hypertension • Valvular heart disease, Congestive heart failure • Arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities • Peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease • Pulmonary diseases, • CPOD • Asthma • Smoking • obesity • Critical ill, multi organ failure • Renal diseases, • Polytrauma, Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  7. Identification of the high-risk surgical patient. Surgery related factors • Anatomical site of surgery • Duration of surgery • Cardiac bypass time • Pneumoperitoneum time • One lung ventilation time • Total blood loss • General anaesthesia and muscle relaxants Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  8. Peri operative deaths • National Confidential Enquiry into Perioperative Deaths (NCEPOD) • Mortality 30 days post operative • Emergency surgery 1,4 % • Elective surgery 0,5 % • Patients > 70 years: 70 % • Coexisting med disease: 94 % • Death within 5 days post op: 50 % Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  9. The elderly patient • Complication rates and morbidity following anesthesia are increased in the elderly [27]. • the occurrence of complications increases hospital stay. • Deaths today: Patients are more likely to be older, have undergone an urgent operation, be of poorer physical status and have co-existing cardiovascular or neurological disorder”. • The 1999 UK CEPOD report [20] that looked specifically at patients over 90 years at the time of operation recognized that “elderly patients have a high incidence of coexisting disorders and a high risk of early postoperative death”.* • The occurrence of postoperative complications, especially respiratory and renal compli- cations, are independent predictors of reduced survival [29] and must be vigorously prevented and treated. • intraoperative tachycardia as a predictor of cardiac complications

  10. The morbid obese patient • Zie afzonderlijke lezing Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  11. The critical ill patient • The anesthetist may influence overall outcome of the critically ill patient in the OR by several mechanisms, some more controversial than others.* Choice of anesthetic agents. Poor hemodynamic control [71] or poor fluid balance – both of which may influence the development of ischemia or organ failure.* Ischemia. Volatile agents (and probably opiates) seem to protect the heart from subse- quent ischemia (preconditioning) similar to the preconditioning due to previous ische- mia. volatile anesthetics, when compared to intravenous anesthetics, seem to result in better cardiac function, lower troponin concentrations, less requirement for inotropic support, reduced duration of mechanical ventilation, and reduced hospital length of stay. Deep anesthesia (as reflected by a bispectral index score <45) has been shown in a prospective observational study of adult patients undergoing major noncardiac .

  12. Timing of operation: Perioperative maintenance of normothermia reduces the incidence of morbid cardiacpatients without acute lung injury? Respiratory muscle contribution to lactic acidosis in low cardiac output. Positive end-expiratory pressure prevents atelectasis during general anaesthesia even in the presence of a high inspired oxygen concentration. Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  13. The cardiac patient: tests to stratify risk I • 12 lead ECG • One risk factor and vascular op • Diabetus • Previous coronary revascularisation • Men > 45 women > 55 • Previous cardio vasc disease • 24 h ECG holter • Not for high risk other reasons • Echocardio/angiography • Dyspnoe of unknown origin • History of CHF Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  14. The cardiac patient: tests to stratify risk II • Stress testing • Exercise, dobut, radionuklide, echocardio • Invasive testing • Angiography not for non clinical symptoms • Pre op revascularisation with CABG or PCI • not for non clinical symptoms Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  15. Peri operative MI • The diagnosis is made more diffficult as only • 14% of patients have chest pain • 53% have any sign or symptom at all • The ECG and biomarkers of cardiac damage (troponins) play an important role, along- side a high index of suspicion. • Perioperative MI • increased in-hospital stay • longer-term mortality. Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  16. Beta-blockade peri-operativeseloken propanolol atenolol labetolol • Patient on beta-blocker, continue • Ischemia on preoperative testing or multiple risk factors for cardiac ischemia, consider starting a beta-blocker • Only the highest-risk patients receive most benefit • Longer half-life beta-blockers provides more benefit • Heart rate control appears to be the most beneficial effect of beta-blockade in the perioperative setting • Benefit appears to be dose-related, give highest possible. • Chronical beta-blockers should not be stopped abruptly because of the beta-blocker withdrawal syndrome Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  17. Renin–angiotensin blockade: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE) and angiotensin receptor blocking agents (ARB)captopril enalapril • Exposure to ACE inhibitors and ARB agents is associated with hypotension following the induction of anesthesia. • ACE inhibitor and ARB exposure is an independent risk factor for death within 30 days of surgery in vascular surgery patients • Not giving one dosing interval is associated with a reduction in the frequency of hypotension following the induction of anesthesia. • The benefits of long-term therapy will persist if the medication is held for the immediate perioperative period and then restarted shortly after surgery. Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  18. Calcium channel blockers: CaCBverapamil diltiazem • CaCB interact with inhaled anesthetic agents and neuromuscular blocking agents used in anesthesia. • Patients chronically treated with CaCB show decreases in SVR and mean arterial pressure. • No harm has been reported in large studies of perioperative use of CaCB. • Meta-analysis has shown some benefit towards reduction of ischemia, arrhythmias,myocardial infarction but not mortality. • The expected benefits are small due to the large numbers of patients that need to betreated to show effects. • It seems reasonable to continue patients chronically taking CaCBs, but not to start therapy just prior to surgery. Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  19. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors: statinszocor lipitor crestor • For patients chronically taking statins, the statins should be continued in patients scheduled for noncardiac surgery • There has only been one randomized study to show a risk reduction with the starting of statins perioperatively • The discontinuation of statins perioperatively is associated with an increase in risk of cardiac events • Statin use is reasonable in patients undergoing vascular surgery • Patients with at least one risk factor undergoing intermediate or major surgery should be considered for starting a statin preoperatively • Preoperative statin therapy has also been associated with decreased mortality following coronary artery bypass grafting • Statins should be restarted as soon as possible following surgery Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  20. Nitrates • Patients should use nitrates as needed but should otherwise minimize use. • In many centers, nitroglycerin patches are discontinued prior to the induction of anesthesia and surgery. • There is no conclusive information available to help the perioperative physician know what to further advise patients. Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  21. Scoring systems and risk indices • American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status • Important points not taken into account are: • age – some add an extra grade for ages >75, • complexity of operation, • duration of operation, • whether the disease process is associated to the current illness Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  22. Revised Goldman Cardiac Risk Index • Six independent predictors. • High-risk type of surgery • History of IHD (previous MI or a positive exercise test, current complaint of chest pain considered to be cardiac in origin, use of nitrate therapy, or ECG with pathological Q waves. • History of CHF. • History of cerebrovascular disease. • Diabetes mellitus requiring treatment with insulin. • Preoperative serum creatinine >2.0 mg dl−1 • no risk factors = 0.4% for major cardiac complications • one risk factor = 1.1% “ • two risk factors = 4.6 “ • three risk factors = 9.7% “ Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  23. Pulmonary complications • •pneumonia,
•respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation,
•bronchospasm,
•atelectasis,
•exacerbation of chronic underlying disease Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  24. Preventie door • Veilig werken • Opgeleid personeel • Veilige en gecontroleerde toestellen • Veilige werkwijze • Leer door ervaring: • Noteer uw ongevallen en bijna ongevallen (FONA) • Ken uw risico patienten • Wat bepaalt een risico ? Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  25. Tandletsels Onvoldoende mondopening, moeilijke intubatie, alleenstaande tanden bovenkaak Tandcaries tandbreuk Peridontitis tand uitval Risico niet alleen tijdens intubatie Ook mayo canule, echo sonde, OTT tijdens wakker worden wanneer patient bijt ! Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  26. Neuropathie N ulnaris neuropathie bij: Elleboog flexie over 100° Voorarm pronatie Locale druk voorarm Hypotensie locaal of algeheel obese mannen, asymptomatische maar abnormale ulnaris pre op symptomen pas 48 uur na operatie, ook niet geopereerde patienten even frequent ulnaris neuropathie Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011

  27. Conclusie: Aanpak Ken de risico’s vooraf Communiceer deze naar patient en chirurg Onderzoek de ernst van het risico Effect van vroegere anesthesie Voldoende monitoring per op Kies een oppervlakkige of juist zeer diepe anesthesie Opname op intensieve post op Stel uit indien patient in betere toestand gebracht kan worden Zorg voor aandacht en kwaliteit verbetering Anaesthesia for high risk patients JPM 2011