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Chapter 26 – World War II

Chapter 26 – World War II

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Chapter 26 – World War II

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  1. Chapter 26 – World War II Section Notes Video The War Begins The Home Front War in Europe and North Africa War in the Pacific Victory and Consequences The Impact of the GI Bill Maps World War II in Europe, 1939-1941 Pearl Harbor, 1941 World War II in Europe, 1942-1945 War in the Pacific, 1941-1945 Quick Facts Major Leaders of the War in Europe Causes and Effects of World War II Chapter 26 Visual Summary Images The Third Reich Primary Source: Supporting the War Struggles at Home Code Talkers Iwo Jima

  2. The War Begins • The Big Idea • The rise of aggressive totalitarian governments led to the start of World War II. • Main Ideas • During the 1930s, totalitarian governments rose to power in Europe and Japan. • German expansion led to the start of World War II in Europe in 1939. • The United States joined the war after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941.

  3. Main Idea 1: During the 1930s, totalitarian governments rose to power in Europe and Japan. • Several European countries moved towards totalitarianism, a political system in which the government controls every aspect of citizens’ lives. 1930s • Benito Mussolini gained complete control of Italy in 1922. • Rule based on fascism, a political system in which the “state”– or government– is seen as more important than individuals. • In the mid-1930s, began working to expand territory Italy • Adolf Hitler took advantage of public anger over effects of Treaty of Versailles to gain power. • A member of the National Socialist Party, or Nazis • Became chancellor in 1933 and seized all government power • Blamed others for Germany’s problems, including Jews and Communists Germany

  4. The Soviet Union and Japan • Joseph Stalin became dictator of the Soviet Union by 1928. • Communist ruler • Terrorized those he saw as political enemies, killing or imprisoning millions of Soviet citizens Soviet Union • Group of military leaders slowly gained complete control of government. • By 1930s, had more influence than the Japanese emperor • Wanted to build a large Japanese empire in East Asia • Invaded China and killed hundreds of thousands Japan

  5. Hitler dreamed of avenging Germany’s defeat in World War I. Violated the Treaty of Versailles Rebuilt German military Invaded neighboring Rhineland in 1936 Germany signed an alliance with Italy and formed the Axis Powers. Japan later joined this pact. Main Idea 2:German expansion led to the start of World War II in Europe in 1939.

  6. Hitler Sets His Sights on Sudetenland • Hitler demanded control of Sudetenland, a region of Czechoslovakia. • Czechs turned to allies France and Great Britain. • Neither wanted armed conflict. • Took appeasement approach– a policy of avoiding war with an aggressive nation by giving in to its demands. • Germany was given control over the Sudetenland in return for a promise not to demand more land. • Some, including British admiral Winston Churchill, were convinced this would not stop Hitler.

  7. August 1939– Hitler and Stalin sign non-aggression pact. Hitler Moves West September 1, 1939– German forces invade Poland; World War II begins. September 3, 1939– Britain and France, known as the Allied Powers, declare war on Germany. Hitler uses a blitzkrieg, or “lightning war,” strategy of quick and hard attacks in Poland; Allied Powers are not prepared. October 1939– Germany and Soviet forces control Poland. Spring 1940– Germany quickly conquers Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. June 22, 1940– France surrenders to Germany, but French resistance continues.

  8. Battle of Britain • Hitler prepared for invasion of Britain. • In July 1940 the Luftwaffe, or German air force, began attacking British planes and airfields. • In August the Luftwaffe began bombing British cities. • British Royal Air Force destroyed some 2,300 Luftwaffe aircraft. • Used new technology of radar • Hitler cancelled invasion of Britain.

  9. The United States opposed Hitler’s actions, but refused to enter war. In 1940 President Franklin Roosevelt was reelected. In 1941 Roosevelt proposed and Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, allowing the president to aid any nations believed vital to U.S. defense. Began sending war supplies and assistance to Great Britain, China, and other Allied countries Sent supplies to Soviet Union after Hitler invaded it in June 1941 Main Idea 3: The United States joined the war after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941.

  10. Attack on Pearl Harbor • United States protested Japanese invasion of French Indochina in July 1941. • Japanese military leaders planned large-scale attack on U.S. naval fleet at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. • December 7, 1941– Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor. • Sank or damaged all of the U.S. battleships anchored at Pearl Harbor. • More than 2,400 Americans killed • Almost 200 airplanes destroyed • December 8, 1941– United States declared war on Japan. • Germany declared war on the United States.

  11. The Home Front • The Big Idea • American involvement in World War II helped the U.S. economy and changed the lives of many Americans. • Main Ideas • Businesses, soldiers, and citizens worked to prepare the United States for war. • The war brought new opportunities for many women and minorities. • Japanese Americans faced internment during the war.

  12. Main Idea 1:Businesses, soldiers, and citizens worked to prepare for war. • Factories ran 24 hours a day. • Agricultural production increased. • Effort of mobilizing for war brought end to the Great Depression Businesses • Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 was nation’s first peacetime draft. • More than 16 million Americans served during war. Soldiers • War Production Board created by government to oversee conversion of factories to war production • Increased taxes • Sold war bonds Government • Collected scrap metal to be used in war factories • Learned to use less in order to supply overseas troops Civilians

  13. Main Idea 2:The war brought new opportunities for many women and minorities. • Women in Workforce • New opportunities when war broke out • Because so many men were sent to war, the government urged women to fill their places in the workplace. • Women worked in factories at jobs traditionally held only by men. • Women in Military • About 300,000 women served in the armed forces in non-combat positions. • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps • Women’s Airforce Service • Army and navy nurses served in combat areas.

  14. African American labor leader A. Philip Randolph fought for fair treatment of African Americans in workplace. Roosevelt issued an order prohibiting racial discrimination in the government and companies producing war goods. African Americans in World War II Civilians Military • About 1 million African Americans served in World War II, mostly in segregated units. • The Tuskegee Airmen were African American pilots. • Led by Benjamin O. Davis, who later became the first African American general in the U.S. Air Force • Flew thousands of successful combat missions

  15. Mexican Americans in World War II • About 300,000 served in the military • Many found wartime jobs on West Coast and in Midwest. • Government brought in farm workers from Mexico, called braceros. • To make up for shortage of farm workers • About 200,000 Mexicans worked in this program. • Mexican American youth culture grew. • Blended different music styles and clothing styles • Some wore zoot suits– fancy, loose-fitting outfits with oversized hats. • Many faced discrimination. • June 1943– in Los Angeles zoot-suit riots, sailors attacked Mexican Americans wearing zoot suits.

  16. Main Idea 3:Japanese Americans faced internment during the war. • After Pearl Harbor, some Americans began to look at Japanese Americans with fear and suspicion. • Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. • Allowed government to begin process of internment, or forced relocation and imprisonment, of Japanese Americans • 115,000 Japanese Americans evacuated from homes and held in isolated internment camps. • Government initially banned Japanese Americans from serving in military. • Policy reversed in 1943. • 33,000 U.S.-born citizens of Japanese descent, or Nisei, served in World War II.

  17. War in Europe and North Africa • The Big Idea • After fierce fighting in North Africa and Europe, the Allies stopped the German advance and slowly began driving back German forces. • Main Ideas • The Allies fought back against the Axis Powers in North Africa and Europe. • Key Allied victories halted the German advance. • In the D-Day invasion, Allied forces attacked German-controlled France.

  18. Roosevelt and Churchill meet to develop Allied plan. Priority: defeat the Germans Main Idea 1:The Allies fought back against the Axis Powers in North Africa and Europe. Allies Join Forces New Technologies • Sonar– uses sound waves to detect objects underwater • Long-range aircraft– allowed Allies to drop bombs on German factories, railroads and cities

  19. Main Idea 2:Key Allied victories halted the German advance. • North Africa • 1942– German Afrika Korps began North Africa offensive against Egypt. • British stopped them at Battle of El Alamein. • U.S. and British troops led by Dwight D. Eisenhower advanced from Morocco and Algeria to defeat Germans. • Italy • July 1943– Allied forces invaded Sicily and headed to mainland Italy. • Slowly moved northward along western coast • June 1944– Allied forces captured Rome. • 1945– Germans driven out of Italy and Mussolini executed by Italian freedom fighters.

  20. Eastern Front • Massive German and Soviet armies battled on eastern front. • By mid-1942, Axis armies had driven deep into Soviet Union. • German forces advanced to fight Battle of Stalingrad. • Savage street fighting continued for months. • German supplies began to run low. • Winter set in and thousands of Germans froze or starved to death. • In January 1943 the German commander surrendered. • Soviet victory came at an enormous cost. • More than 1 million Soviet soldiers dead • About 800,000 Axis soldiers killed

  21. Main Idea 3:In the D-Day invasion, Allied forces attacked German-controlled France. Invasion of German-occupied France • First step toward liberating Europe and forcing Hitler to surrender • Dwight Eisenhower spent months in planning. • June 6, 1944– D-Day, or “designated day” • American, British, and Canadian troops invade France from Great Britain. • Americans landed on two beaches, codenamed Utah and Omaha. • Fierce fighting • Almost 3,000 killed or wounded at Omaha Beach alone. • By end of day, all five Normandy beaches secured. • Allies began moving east toward Germany.

  22. War in the Pacific • The Big Idea • Allied forces reversed Japan’s expansion in the Pacific and battled toward the main Japanese islands. • Main Ideas • The Japanese continued advancing across the Pacific in 1942. • The Allies stopped Japan’s advance with key victories over the Japanese navy. • The Allies began battling toward Japan.

  23. Main Idea 1:The Japanese continued advancing across the Pacific in 1942. • Attack on Pearl Harbor left U.S. Pacific fleet weakened. • Japan advanced and conquered Thailand, Burma, the British colonies of Hong Kong and Singapore, and the U.S. territories of Guam and Wake Island. • Japanese then attacked U.S. controlled Philippines. • American and Filipino forces under command of American general Douglas MacArthur • March 1942– Allied forces surrender Philippines to Japan. • Japanese march more than 70,000 captured soldiers to prison camps. • More than 600 Americans and 10,000 Filipinos died in the Bataan Death March.

  24. Main Idea 2:The Allies stopped Japan’s advance with key victories over the Japanese navy. • Allies feared continued Japanese advance. • Americans were able to break Japanese codes and discovered battle plans. • American admiral Chester Nimitz led the U.S. Pacific Fleet in Allied response.

  25. Key Victories in the Pacific • Battle of the Coral Sea • Japanese planned assault on Port Moresby, New Guinea. • American and Japanese aircraft carriers and fighter planes clashed. • No clear victor, but Japanese advance halted • Battle of Midway • Japanese planned surprise attack on Midway Islands. • June 4, 1942– Japanese attack and American fighters launch • American bombers destroy four carriers and severely weaken Japanese naval power. • Allied victory • Guadalcanal • Allies began recapturing Japanese territory. • August 1942– American Marines invade Guadalcanal. • Six months of intense fighting • February 1943– Allied victory

  26. Main Idea 3:The Allies began battling toward Japan. • Allies go on offensive • Develop island hopping strategy, where Allied forces took only the most strategically important islands. • Win victories in Gilbert, Marshall, Mariana, Volcano, and Bonin Islands. • October 1944– General MacArthur leads mission to retake Philippines. • Confrontation at Battle of Leyte Gulf– largest naval battle in history • Allies crush Japanese fleet. • Allied forces drive out all Japanese forces by summer 1945. • Allied planes begin bombing targets in Japan. • Japanese refused to surrender.

  27. February 1945– U.S. Marines storm beaches of Iwo Jima Month of bloody fighting Of 20,000 Japanese defenders, about a thousand were taken prisoner, the rest were killed or wounded in battle. Around 6,800 Americans killed Final Battles Iwo Jima Okinawa • April 1945– U.S. forces attack Okinawa. • Fighting lasts three months • Japanese planes use kamikaze tactic– purposely crashing piloted planes into enemy ships. • Severe casualties • Allies: 12,000 dead, 36,000 wounded • Japan: 110,00 troops and 80,000 civilians dead

  28. Victory and Consequences • The Big Idea • The Allies won World War II, the most devastating war in world history. • Main Ideas • The Allies gained victory in Europe with Germany’s surrender. • Nazis murdered millions of Jews and other people in the Holocaust. • Victory in the Pacific came after the United States dropped atomic bombs on Japan.

  29. Main Idea 1:The Allies gained victory in Europe with Germany’s surrender. • After D-Day invasion, hundreds of thousands of Allied troops land • Allies begin moving toward Germany. • July 1944– Allied forces break western front. • August 1944– Paris is liberated. • Allies push through Belgium and Luxembourg. • Germans plan desperate attack. • Push Allied forces back about 65 miles in the Battle of the Bulge • Allies recover quickly and stop German advance.

  30. Allied Push Toward Germany • January 1945– Germans began to retreat. • Losses heavy– between 70,000 and 81,000 American casualties and even greater German loss • Allied bombing raids devastate major German cities. • April 1945– Soviet troops enter Berlin. • April 12, 1945– U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies of stroke. • May 8, 1945– V-E (Victory in Europe) Day • New United States president Harry S. Truman faces challenge of winning war in Pacific.

  31. Nazi’s attempted to exterminate the entire Jewish population in a program of mass murder known as the Holocaust. January 1942– Nazi officials met to plan their “final solution to the Jewish question,” which was genocide, or the extermination of an entire group of people. Main Idea 2:Nazis murdered millions of Jews and other people in the Holocaust. Final Solution The Death Camps • Nazis forced Jews and others, including Gypsies, Slavs, and political opponents, into concentration camps. • Camps were equipped with gas chambers designed to kill large numbers of people, and furnaces to cremate victims’ bodies. • More than 6 million Jews were killed as well as millions of others.

  32. Main Idea 3:Victory in the Pacific came after the United States dropped atomic bombs on Japan. • Allied scientists developed the atomic bomb, a weapon that produces tremendous power by splitting atoms, in a secret program known as the Manhattan Project. • When Japanese leaders refused to surrender, President Truman ordered use of the bomb. • August 6, 1945– the B-29 bomber Enola Gay drops an atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima. • Explosion killed almost 80,000 people instantly. • Thousands more died from burns and radiation poisoning. • Japanese leaders still refused to surrender.

  33. End of World War II • August 9, 1945– U.S. forces drop a second atomic bomb on city of Nagasaki. • One-third of the city destroyed • 22,000 people killed instantly • August 15, 1945– Japanese announce their surrender thus ending World War II. • The war took a harsh toll. • 50 million people killed • National economies in Europe and Asia devastated • Millions of people left without food, water, or shelter

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