Applied Entomological Research at the University of Wyoming Alexandre Latchininsky Assistant Professor/Extension Entomologist Dept. of Renewable Resources Weed & Pest Conference Casper, November 9, 2006
RAATs became a USDA-APHIS treatment option under the 2002 EIS. • In 2000-2006, RAATs approach was used in 10 western states.
ATV-RAATs:North Dakota Experience 2004 • Dimilin cost was $ 179.70 per gallon One gallon treats 256 RAATS acres: 70 cents/RAATs acre • Sevin XLR Plus was $ 29.11 per gallon. One gallon treats 17 RAATs acres: $1.71 /RAATs acre
Pyriproxyfen (Knack®) Grasshopper Efficacy Trials 2006 Pyriproxyfen is an Insect Growth Regulator - juvenile hormone mimic
CONCLUSIONS • Grasshopper densities were not reduced below the economic threshold in any plot treated with pyriproxyfen, either the Knack® or ULV pyriproxyfen formulation. • At the 21 and 28 d sampling period some treated grasshoppers exhibited both juvenile and adult characteristics (“sublethal effect”). • This suggests that 30 g of active ingredient per acre rate may be too low to be effective on rangeland grasshoppers.
Grasshopper Biological Control Pathogens: Weapons of the future?
Beauveria bassiana • A fungal pathogen naturally occurring in soil • Acts by contact and causes disease “White muscardine” and eventually death of grasshoppers • Strain GHA isolated from Montana grasshoppers • Mass production and commercialization by EmeraldBio (USA) sold in 2005 to Laverlam S.A. (Columbia) • Liquid formulation of spores in oil – Mycotrol O®
Beauveria bassianaMycotrol® O PROS: Liquid formulation of spores in oil >70% control in 14 days (lab) Safety (humans and wildlife) Controls other pests CONS: Reliability (condition dependent; needs moisture) Inconsistent efficacy (good infection rate but not sufficient kill) Cost (>$20 per acre)
Pre-treatment densities: 23-44 gh/square m Camnula pellucida
ATV plot size 20 ac 50% coverage Date 23 June 2004
% GRASSHOPPER MORTALITY, EMULSIFIED SOYBEAN OIL ADJUVANT
Mycotrol O® treatment: How much does it cost? Mycotrol price: $100/gal => dose rate 1qt/ac => $25/ac Oil carrier price: $20/gal => dose rate ½ qt/ac => $2.50/ac Total cost of the product: $27.50/ac + cost of treatment…
Conclusions • Beauveria has high infection rate, provoking mycoses in grasshoppers • However, grasshopper mortality is less than optimal • Applied at recommended rates, Beauveria treatment is very costly • Such “organic” treatment might represent an alternative to synthetic insecticides in certain situations (e.g., ecologically sensitive areas)
Acknowledgments Funding: EPA/IR-4 grant Fremont County Weed and Pest Council Special thanks: Luke Oestman (UW) Lars Baker and Nancy Webber (Fremont Co. W&P)
Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridumGreen Muscle® • Very high specificity against grasshoppers • Commercially produced by CABI (U.K.) • Awaiting EPA permit to use the South African isolate for field trials in collaboration with USDA-ARS (most probably, in 2008)
Recent Grasshopper Publications Wyoming Grasshopper Field Guide Western Pest Grasshopper Poster Available free of charge from UW-CES Bulletin Office Dee Bixby 766-2115 firstname.lastname@example.org
Other rangeland pests Black Grass Bugs
Labops hesperius • Conclusions from MSU study: • BGB damage reduced percent crude protein and increased ADF and NDF; related to forage protein, digestibility and ruminant intake, respectively. • Grazing management reduced black grass bug densities. Black Grass Bug abundances were clearly lowest in the most heavily-grazing plots. Because the sites had been grazed in the same manner since 1993, this suggests that there were carry-over effects from grazing between years. IPM Strategy for Sustainable Black Grass Bug Management in Wyoming Grasslands Enrolled in Conservation Reserve Program – proposal submitted to UW AES Competitive Grants Program
Mosquito research Utilizing Stable Isotopes in Determining the Larval Development Sites of Adult Mosquitoes Project by Travis Gilchriest, M.S. Candidate
The Question • Where are adults emerging in relation to trap location? • Are they derived primarily from nearby habitats or are they migrants? • What distances will adults fly from larval development sites?
Objectives • Demonstrate the viability of stable isotope analysis as a tool in mosquito population studies • Investigate distribution dynamics of mosquito populations • Help to shape mosquito control measures for the most effective use of resources
Study Area • Torrington – Goshen Co., WY • High population of mosquitoes • Species: Culex tarsalis, Aedes vexans • Agricultural community • Multiple sources of water for larval habitat • Control resources are limited
Approach • Mark-recapture to determine adult distribution patterns • Label a habitat with 15N marker • Concentric adult trapping around labeled habitat • Analyze adults for presence of the marker
Specimen Collection and Preparation • Larvae were collected from habitats with standard dippers • Reared in original habitat water to adults in emergence chambers • Ten adults were collect from the emergence chambers for each site • Adults were killed by freezing and oven dried at 40°C • Samples were submitted for 13C and 15N analysis in a Continuous Flow-IRMS
Alfalfa field Trash cans Mosquito Habitats Pioneer Park Holly Sugar pond
Torrington Habitat Stats • δ13C and δ15N isotopic means (based on ANOVA) for various habitats in the Torrington, WY area. Post Hoc analysis with Dunnett C. • Using a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance due to failure of homogeneity of variances requirements preventing a one-way ANOVA • For corrected δ13C, p<0.05 • For corrected δ15N, p<0.05
Forest pests Mountain Pine Beetle Project in Medicine Bow National Forest Diana Dean, M.S. Candidate
Attack Frequency • Lodgepole attack ratio 1: 20 • Limber attack ratio 1:1.8
MPB Flight 2004 and 2005 2004: Adult MPB started to fly as early as in mid-May with a peak in early August 2005: Low MPB numbers compared to 2004, with a peak in late August
CAPS Program ECB was the only target pest found in CAPS traps in 2005
UW Arthropod ID Clinic Objective: Provide accurate and timely arthropod identification to clientele 2003 2004 2005 Samples processed: 60 135 221 Contact: Scott Schell, Assistant Extension Entomologist 766-2508 or email@example.com Request arthropod ID through your County Extension Educators
Horticultural pests Cabbage moth caterpillar Cabbage white butterfly Thrips damage Colorado potato beetle
Available on the web and from UW-CES Bulletin Office Dee Bixby 766-2115 firstname.lastname@example.org
In Preparation: Field Guide to Common Wyoming Butterflies and Moths The Guide will include pictures of adult butterflies and caterpillars, and information on larval food plants, as well as advices on attracting butterflies to gardens.
UW Entomology Short Course 2006 Whitney Cranshaw, CSU