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  1. Aims/Objectives • To review Britain's role in the early cold war 1945-1949 • To assess Britain’s role in: • The formation of NATO • The Korean War • To assess if Britain was a world power between 1945-1953

  2. Cold War Word search • Answer the clues • Find the word in the wordsearch

  3. Britain in the Cold War Cartoon Activity • Groups of 4 • You will be given 10 Cartoons highlighting Britain's involvement in the Cold War

  4. The formation of N.A.T.O

  5. Clement Atlee- ‘Soviet Communism threatened the welfare and way of life of other nations of Europe’ • Ernest Bevin felt a united Western Europe was essential -Bevin’s main aims was 2 fold • 1. To create a ‘Western Union’ –establish closer cooperation between the states of Western Europe • 2. As a superpower the USA had to be involved

  6. Treaty of Dunkirk – March 1947- Britain and France The treaty was intended to prevent any form of resurgence from Germany • However for Bevin the treaty represented only the first stage in a process in involving the United States in the defence of Europe • Treaty of Brussels 1948 • March 1948- Brussels Treaty signed by –Britain, Belgium, France, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands. • Economic, Military and Political alliance • Bevin played a key role in negotiations. Bevin had also met with US and Canadian officials about creating a Western Alliance • Talks began in 1948 between European nations and the US

  7. The Formation of N.A.T.O What is N.A.T.O? • North. Atlantic. Treaty. Organisation. • 1949- 12 countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty- UK, USA, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, France, Canada, Portugal, Italy, Denmark, Norway and Iceland • -Military alliance –would protect any member that was attacked

  8. NATO TreatyAnswer the following questions: According to Article 1, what should all members try to refrain from doing? Summarise what article 2 and 3 saying? What is each member committing their country to doing? (see Article 5) What do you think are the advantages to Britain of NATO membership? What do you think are the disadvantages to Britain of NATO membership? How do you think the USSR would have responded to the formation of a western military alliance? Shade on your map of Europe, the countries which were the founding members of NATO- (Britain, Luxembourg, France, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Belgium and Netherlands- US and Canada also members) Using the Textbook provided fill in the rest of you fact file

  9. TASK • Complete NATO fact sheet

  10. The Warsaw Pact On May 14, 1955, the USSR established the Warsaw Treaty in response to the admittance of West Germany into NATO. • 1955 USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania signed the TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP, CO-OPERATION AND MUTUAL ASSISTANCE –known as the Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Pact formally ended in 1991.

  11. The Korean War

  12. Korea has been ruled by Japan from 1910 to the end of the Second World War At the Potsdam conference the allies agreed to divided Korea In 1945 Korean was to be split into two zones North of the 38th parallel under Russian control , south under American control 1945- USA and Soviet Union troops enter Korea -August 1945-Soviet Union troops enter N.Korea -September 1945-US troops enter S.Korea The idea was the Korean would be granted independence after five years However there were internal divisions in Korea

  13. 1947- NORTH V SOUTH Kim Il Sung Syngman Rhee Authoritarian Anti Communist state -South Wanted Unification of Korea Backed by the USA and the West Communist state- North Wanted Unification of Korea Backed by the Soviet Union

  14. US Troops withdraw from Korea 1949 • Civil War in China- Becomes communist state- People’s Republic of China • North Korea support in Civil War • Kim Il Sung pushes for Unification of Korea • Stalin agreed to secretly support Kim- tanks, aircraft and heavy artillery to the North Korean forces • June 1950 North Korea invades the South • South Korea too weak

  15. Onset of War • Outrage at North Korean invasion • Britain and USA condemn invasion • Britain and USA disagree over Communist China • Attlee and Truman favour military intervention • UN Security Council meeting • Agreement to intervene in Korea- Under banner of ‘UN forces • USA and Britain would play most important role

  16. MAP Activity- The 3 stages of the Korean War • MAP 1- OCCUPATION OF KOREA END OF WORLD WAR 2 1. Agreement by allies to divide Korea 2. North: Soviet Union 3. South: USA

  17. 4. North Korea Invades South Korea 5. South Korean forces easily subdued 6. South Korea appeals to UN for help 7. UN agrees to intervention MAP 2- INVASION OF SOUTH KOREA BY NORTH KOREA- 1950

  18. 8. UN Troops enter S. Korea 9. Initially Stop at 38th Parallel 10. US wanted to advance into North Korea 11. Britain concerned -fear of Chinese 12. UN forces pushed into North Korea upto border with China • MAP 3 –ADVANCE OF UN AND NATO TROOPS –NOV 1950

  19. 13. China concerned by UN advances intervenes on side of North Korea 14. UN forces pushed back to 38th Parallel 15. US threaten A-Bomb could be used on China 16. Stalemate reached 17. Armistice signed in 1953 • MAP 4- MOVEMENT OF UN TROOPS AFTER CHINISE INTERVENTION NOV 1950-MAY 1951

  20. Britain and the Korean War-Questions 1. Why did Britain and the USA disagree over communist China in 1949? 2. What happened to Korea in 1945? 3. What actions did the Soviet Union and USA take in 1949? 4. What took place in June 1950? 5. What was the response of this? 6. When was an ‘Armistice’ reached in Korea? 7. What the western governments view on Soviet Union actions in Korea? 8. How many forces did Britain have in Korea? 9. Why did Attlee meet with Truman in 1950? What was the result of this meeting 10. What was the economic impact of the Korean War on Britain? Extension: Did Britain’s involvement in the Korean war show it was still a world power? Write a paragraph explaining your answer

  21. Britain’s involvement in the Korean war Britain was firm ally of the US and offered support to US when the US initiated UN action to be taken against North Korea Britain committed 100,000 troops to the war- more than any other country apart from US Britain however was concerned that this Asian conflict did not divert attention away from Europe Britain became concerned over US policy in Korea – Britain feared the US would use the Atomic Bomb on Korea December 1950 Atlee visited Washington to get assurances from Truman that the US would not use the Atomic bomb to defeat North Korea or on China Atlee failed to get an commitment from America-did this show that Britain had lost its influence?

  22. Economic Consequences Immediate consequence for Britain involvement in the Korean was an increase in Britain's defence budget -rose from £2.3 billion in 1950 to £4.7 million in 1951 -This impacted on other areas such a labours spending at home and her empire -Britain's empire in Far East was more vulnerable -Other countries such as Germany and Japan were spending money on industry not weaponry and overtook Britain economically

  23. Britain's involvement in The Korean War Positives Negatives Had little influence over military strategy in Korea Drain on Britain’s Economy Britain and US clashed over China –which showed they had different ambitions and goals in Far East Britain's influence over US had declined Truman refused to give assurances to Atlee, but he did act as a compromising force Britain did not want UN forces to invade North Korea-USA ignored them • Britain’s role in the Korean war was a strong sign that it continued to seek a place on the world stage –and showed that Britain had some influence • Its military commitment was far small that the US-however the provided the second largest contribution of troops • Britain had showed its self as a reliable ally and relations with US strengthened • Korean war convinced the US to maintain defence of Western Europe • NATO strengthened