Chapter 32: Patterns of Life Section 3
Terms • Icon - religious painting of Jesus, Mary, or a saint. • Mir – village commune, usually regulated village life by a council of men.
Russian Society • Extreme separation of rich and poor caused discontent • Russian nobles called boyars during the 1700s preferred to speak French rather than Russian. • They adopted French culture but did not experience revolution like the French. • Most of society consisted of serfs, their was little change or progression due to the autocratic rule of the czars
Serfs were bound to land and were punished if they tried to escaped. Crop yields were small because there was no incentive to work the land for themselves Nobles lived in lavish comfort with about 100 servants. Men served the food whereas women prepared the food. Nobles maintained discipline over their serfs by beating and flogging them. Serfs and Nobles
The Russian Orthodox Church • The Church was controlled by the Czar through appointment of officials and pay. • The Church reported confessions and crimes told by people in confession. • Priests gave comfort to peasants because their hard work on Earth would be rewarded in heaven. • Festivals and religious holidays provided entertainment. Trinity week marked the beginning of Spring, St. Peter’s Day marked the start of the harvest.
Peasant Life • Most peasants never traveled a few miles from home. • Life revolved around the mir which regulated village life. • Men were the head of households and controlled the rules of the mir. • Peasants lived on sharecropping which had been the way of Western Europe centuries earlier. • Young men who were drafted for the army had to serve for 25 years. Families mourned their sons when they were drafted because they knew he would either die or come home an older man. • Newly weds lived in the husband’s parents house. • Most homes consisted of a wooden shack with one large room and one room for storage. The older family member slept closest to the warm stove. • Most peasant ate bread and vegetable. Protein was rare.