ChE 461/861 Introduction to Biochemical Engineering Instructor Dr. C. Niu Chemical Engineering
Research Area • Biosorption: Use biomaterials to adsorb inorganic (metals) or organic compounds from liquid phase Biomaterials: microorganism: Penicillium chrysogenum Bacillus subtilis Food waste: crab shells Agricultural waste: wheat straw, corn husk Forestry waste: wood chips Application:mining and metallurgical processes; Au, V, Cr waste water treatment
Other research interests • Biological hydrogen production To reduce the greenhouse gas emission - pure gas - water: the combustion end product • Biofuel (ethanol) production To produce sustainable energy sources - using agricultural or forestry waste - Improve the productivity of ethanol
Challenges In all bioprocesses: • Improve the productivity • Reduce the process cost.
Processes in Biotechnology • Recombinant DNA technology • DOE* publishes a roadmap for biological research for energy and environmental needs. (Oct., 2005) *DOE: US department of Environment All these breakthroughs make it possible to develop effective bioprocess to produce the products desired for our society.
Demands for Engineers • convert these visions of biologists to reality • develop commercial bio-product to benefit our society. • The explosion of information • continued discoveries in the field of life sciences to provide biochemical engineering with a potential to become one of the leading fields in chemical engineering.
Course Objectives To provide a general understanding of the basic concepts of - microbiology, - biochemistry and genetics To apply chemical engineering principles to - bioreactor design, - downstream processing and - bioprocess optimization and control.
Introduction of Biochemical engineering What is biochemical Engineering?
Definitions • Biochemical engineering: it has usually meant the extension of chemical engineering principles to systems using a biological catalyst to bring about desired chemical transformations. • Bioprocess engineering: it is to include the work of chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical and industrial engineering to apply the principles of their discipline to processes based on using living cells or subcomponents of cells.
Definitions • Biotechnology - Traditionally, implies the use or development of methods of direct genetic manipulation for a socially desirable product. - Broadly, “Commercial techniques that use living organisms, or substances from those organism, to make or modify a product…” (Congress of the United States, 1984)
Definitions • Bioengineeringis a broader title and would include work on medical and agricultural systems. • Fermentation • Traditionally, defined as the process for the production of alcohol or lactic acid from glucose. • Broadly, defined as “an enzymatically controlled transformation of organic compound” (Webster’s New College Dictionary)
Typical Bioprocess Stock culture Raw materials Medium preparation Microorganism cell preparation Shake flask Medium formulation Seed fermenter Sterilization Computer control Production fementer Air Microbiology, biochemistry Recovery Chemical, engineering Products Purification Effluent treatment
Biochemical Engineering History • 5000 to 10,000 BC: yogurt, cheese and soy products, wine and beer. • In early 20th century: pure bakers yeast were being produced in tanks ad sold. • In world war I: fermentation was used to produce chemicals needed for war. • World War II: antibiotics production became on the commercial scale. • 1970s: recombinant DNA technology and the cell fusion technologies.
Canadian Innovative Biotech Companies According to the survey of Statistics Canada every two year: • 496 innovative biotechnology firms in Canada in 2003, • 32% increase from 375 in 2001 • 76% increase from 282 firms in 1997.
Biotech company search • http://www.pulsehr.com/CompanyList.asp
Regulation and organization In pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry, • Primary concern: to produce a product of consistently high quality in amounts to satisfy the medical needs of the population. • Secondary concern: to reduce the manufacturing cost. A future biochemical engineer needs to understand the regulatory climate in which many bioprocess engineers work. U. S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and its equivalents in other countries