TOPIC: GROUP BEHAVIOUR AND TEAMS
ABSTRACT Overall, in this presentation, we will know about group behavior and defenses of groups and team. It is not easy working in group with different people who have different personality. By understanding group dynamics which are the definition of group and reasons for joining groups, we will know the increasing use of teams by organizations. Group performance can be varies. Factors affecting group performances include group cohesiveness and groupthink. Knowing factor affecting group performances will help us to reduce the effect and eventually increase the group performances. Roles in group, norms and basic process are also important because by knowing all of this a group can work effectively with a good results. There are slightly difference between a group and a team. All team is a group and not all group is a team.
DEFINITION OF GROUP • Two or more individuals engaged in social interactionfor the purpose of achieving some goal, which in work settings is usually work-related, such as producing a product or service • Sometimes, groups at work may form merely to develop and maintain social relationship -RIGGIO-
TYPEOF GROUP • FORMAL: Put together by the organization to perform certain task and handle specific responsibilities • INFORMAL: Developing naturally. Informal work groups might include groups of workers who lunch together to talk about job-related problems or workers who regularly get together after work to discuss methods of performing their jobs.
The various role individual play in work group • 1.Group Task Rolesis related to getting the job done example : initiator-contibutor, information seeker, opinion giver, elaborator, coordinator, orientor, energizer and recorder • 2.Group building and Maintainence deal with maintainence of interpersonal relations among group members example: encourager, harmonizer, compromiser, gate keeper, group observer and follower • 3.Self centered role lnvolves satisfying personal rather than group goalexample: aggressor, blocker, self-confessor, playboy, dominator, help-seeker ROLE CONFLICT Conflict that result when expectations associated with one role interfere with the expectation concerning another role.Have negative effect on job satisfaction, performance, mental and physical well being.
Group Cohesiveness • Definition: the extent to which a group members like and trust one another, are committed to accomplishing a team goal and share a feeling of group pride. • The more cohesive the group, the greater its : • Productivity and efficiency • Decision quality • Member satisfaction • Member interaction • Employee courtesy
Stability of membership • The greater the stability of the group the greater the cohesiveness • Thus, groups in which members remain for long period of time and previously worked together are more cohesive and perform better.
Group Ability and Confidence • Groups consisting a high ability members out perform those with low ability members. • Groups whose members believe that their team can be successful both at a specific task and at tasks in general perform better than groups whose members aren’t as confident about their probability for success.
Personality of the Group Members • Meta analysis results indicate that in general, groups whose members have task-related experience and score high in the personality dimension of openness to experience and emotional stability will perform better.
Groupthink • Group think is a syndrome that occurs in highly cohesive decision-making groups, where a norm develops to arrive at an early consensus. • Thereby reducing the effectiveness of the groups ability to make high equality, critical decisions. • Members become so cohesive and like-minded that they make poor decision despite contrary information that might reasonably lead them to other options.
Groupthink most often occurs when the group • Is cohesive • Is insulated from qualified outsiders • Has an illusion of invulnerability, infallibility, or both • Believes that it is morally superior to its adversaries • Is under great pressure to conform • Has a leader who promotes a favorite solution • Has gatekeepers who keep information from other group members. • Group think can be reduced in several ways • The leaders should promote open discussion and encourage group members to speak. • A group or committee can be separated into subgroups to increase the chance of disagreement
NORMS • The rules that groups adopt to indicate appropriate and inappropriate behavior for members. • Can be formalize as written work rules, but are most commonly informal and unrecorded. • Can govern any group activity , including the speed with which a person should perform a job , proper modes of dress ,acceptable topic for group conservation , and even who sits in where in the employee lunchroom. • Can also evolve from the group’s history.
Important of Norms • Establish to help the group service • Can develop that help commit work group members to producing higher quality product or service. • Help increase the predictability of member’s behavior. • Provide a sense of identity for the group by giving member’s a chance to express their shared values beliefs.
Conformity • The process of adhering to group norms. • Violation can result in subtle or overt pressure to comply with the rules. • This can lead the form of a look of this approval , verbal criticism or isolation of the offending individual. • Once the violator conforms to the norm , the pressure is remove and the person is again included in normal group activities. • Generally, conformity to norms is very strong , and helps maintain order and uniformity in the group’s behavior.
Cooperation • People work together, coordinating their activities, cooperating with another, and sometimes helping each other. • As long as workers hold the same goals, they will usually cooperate with another. • Employee help each other because of reciprocity rule-the tendency for person to pay back those to whom they are indebted. • Can lead to payoff for the individual workers.
Competition • The process whereby group members are pitted against one another to achieve individual goals. • Involves member working against one another to achieve individual goals, often at the expense other members. • Viewed as health because it often motivates people to improve their work performance.
REFERENCES Aamodt, M. G. (2007). Industrial/Organizational Psychology ( An Applied Approach ). Michele Sordi. Riggio, R. E. (1996). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology. Happercollins. http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IIT-MADRAS/Management_Science_I/Pdfs/7_1.pdf