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Rosids – Malvids : Myrtales - Brassicales - Malvales - Sapindales PowerPoint Presentation
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Rosids – Malvids : Myrtales - Brassicales - Malvales - Sapindales

Rosids – Malvids : Myrtales - Brassicales - Malvales - Sapindales

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Rosids – Malvids : Myrtales - Brassicales - Malvales - Sapindales

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  1. Rosids – Malvids:Myrtales- Brassicales - Malvales - Sapindales Spring 2012

  2. Fig. 8.30

  3. Core Eudicots: Rosids-Malvids Malvids Order Myrtales Myrtaceae – Eucalyptus Onagraceae – Evening primroses Order Brassicales Brassicaceae* – Mustards Order Malvales Malvaceae* – Mallows, cotton, chocolate Order Sapindales Sapindaceae* – Maples, lychee Rutaceae – Citrus *family required for recognition

  4. Rosids-Malvids:Myrtales: Myrtaceae(The Eucalyptus or Myrtle Family) • Pantropical; highly diverse in warm temperate Australia • Trees or shrubs often with flaky bark • Diversity: 4,600-5,500 species in 144 genera • Flowers: Hypanthium well developed; sepals and petals 4-5; stamens usually numerous; carpels 2-5, connate; ovary inferior to half-inferior; fruit usually a 1-many seeded berry or loculicidal capsule • Significant features: Highly aromatic leaves & stems due to many terpenoid and resinous compounds; leaves entire with scattered pellucid dots containing these compounds • Special uses: Eucalyptus important source of timber; many used as ornamentals; cloves (Syzygiumaromaticum), allspice (Pimentadioica); guava (Psidiumguajava) • Family not required

  5. Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus • Foliage dimorphic (juvenile leaves are rounded & stem-clasping; adult leaves are longer, willowy, and petioled) • Flower buds covered by an operculum (fused sepals or petals or both) that falls off at anthesis • Fruit a conical capsule (gumnut) • Primarily Australian; ca. 800 species, some cultivated in the U.S.

  6. Rosids-Malvids:Myrtales: Onagraceae(The Evening Primrose Family) • Widely distributed, primarily in western North America and South America • Mostly herbs, some shrubs, trees • Diversity: ca. 650 species in 17-22 genera • Flowers: Showy; sepals & petals (2-) 4 (-7); stamens (4) 8, not incurved in bud, pollen with viscin threads; carpels usually 4; ovary inferior; long hypanthium; cruciform stigmas; fruit is a loculicidal capsule or berry • Significant features: Tetramerous flowers!! • Special uses: Several ornamental herbs • Family not required

  7. Onagraceae: Clarkia!

  8. Onagraceae: Oenothera • Herbaceous • Leaves usually alternate • Hypanthium prolonged beyond the ovary • Corolla usually yellow (can be white or pink) • Fruit a loculicidal capsule with many seeds or nut-like, indehiscent and few-seeded • Seeds naked

  9. Onagraceae: Oenothera Oenotheraspeciosa

  10. Rosids-Malvids:Brassicales: Brassicaceae(‘Cruciferae’ - The Mustard Family) • Cosmopolitan, most diverse in the Mediterranean region, SW Asia, and western North America • Herbs, shrubs or trees; (sometimes herbs); glucosinolates (mustard oils) present in all taxa • Diversity: 3,400-3,700 species in 321-338 genera • Flowers: Sepals 4; petals 4 (cruciform), often clawed; stamens 6, all + equal or usually 2 shorter and 4 longer (tetradynamous); carpels usually 2, connate, superior ovary; fruit a capsule, usually dehiscing by splitting into 2 valves leaving a persistent cross-wall, a silique or silicle • Significant features: 4-merous flowers; often pioneers after disturbance • Special uses: Many important food plants – cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea), turnip (Brassica rapa), mustards (Brassica spp.), horseradish (Armoraciarusticana), and a wide range of ornamentals • Required taxa: Brassica

  11. Brassicaceae clawed petals tetradynamous stamens cruciform petals silique - silicle

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana The model plant of choice for much of molecular biology.

  13. Brassicaceae: Brassica -annuals or biennials -at least the lower leaves deeply pinnatifid, lyrate or pinnate -racemes without bracts -sepals erect during anthesis -petals yellow -ovary and silique with a prominent beak

  14. Brassica oleracea

  15. Rosids-Malvids:Malvales: Malvaceae(The Mallow Family) • Cosmopolitan • Trees, shrubs, lianas or herbs; vegetative parts with mucilage; leaves often palmatelyveined and lobed (may be pinnately veined) or palmatelycompound; stellate hairs • Diversity: 4,200 species in ca. 250 genera • Flowers: Sepals & petals 5, calyx valvate; stamens 5 to many, monadelphous or polydelphous; carpels 2 to many, connate, superior ovary; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule, also berry, samara, schizocarp, or drupe • Significant features: basic inflorescence unit a modified, 3-bracted cyme; flowers often associated with conspicuous bracts forming an epicalyx; nectaries of densely packed, multicellular glandular hairs, usually on sepals • Special uses: cotton (Gossypium), cacao or chocolate (Theobroma), durian (Durio), balsa wood (Ochroma); many ornamentals, e.g. hibiscus (Hibiscus) • Required taxa: Hibiscus, Gossypium

  16. Malvaceae Monadelphous stamens Polydelphous stamens

  17. Theobroma cacao

  18. Malvaceae: Hibiscus -herbs or shrubs -epicalyx of a circle of several bractlets -filament column bearing anthers for much of its length -styles distinct -fruit a 5-locular loculicidal capsule -seeds 2-several per locule, kidney-shaped

  19. Malvaceae: Gossypium -subshrubs to shrubs -epicalyx of 3-5-7 large, cordate, toothed bracts -styles united -fruit a 3-5-locular loculicidal capsule -seeds+globular, often with hair (lint)

  20. Rosids-Malvids:Sapindales: Sapindaceae(The Maple Family) • Mainly tropical and subtropical, a few diverse in the temperate zone (e.g., Acer, Aesculus) • Trees, shrubs or lianas with tendrils • Diversity: 1,450-1,580 species in 131-135 genera • Flowers: Unisexual or bisexual; sepals & petals 4-5, petals often clawed, with more or less basal appendages adaxially; usually an extrastaminal nectar disk present; stamens 8 or fewer (rarely up to 12), filaments usually hairy or papillose; carpels 2 or 3, connate, superior ovary; fruit a capsule, berry, or schizocarp; seeds with a deep fold or pocket in the seed coat • Significant features: presence of saponins in many • Special uses: lumber, maple syrup (Acer saccharum); many ornamentals; tropical fruits (longan, lychee, rambutan) • Required taxa: Acer

  21. Sapindaceae: Acer -trees or sometimes shrubs -leaves opposite, simple and palmately lobed, rarely pinnately or palmately compound -calyx usually 5-lobed -petals 0 or as many as the calyx lobes -ovary with 2 connate, winged carpels, 2 ovules per carpel -fruit a schizocarp, splitting into 2 samaroidmericarps Some treatments retain this as Aceraceae!

  22. Rosids-Malvids:Sapindales: Rutaceae(The Citrus Family) • Nearly cosmopolitan, primarily tropical to subtropical • Trees or shrubs, sometimes with thorns, spines or prickles • Diversity: 1,800-1,900 species in 158-161 genera • Flowers: Sepals & petals 4 – 5; stamens 8-10; annular nectar disk; carpels 4-5 to many, connate, superior ovary; axile placentation; fruit a drupe, capsule, samara, cluster of follicles or modified berry with leathery, glandular rind (i.e., hesperidium in Citrus). • Significant features: Aromatic oils chemically complex; simple or compound leaves with pellucid dots containing aromatic ethereal oils • Special uses: many desirable fruits - oranges, lemons, limes, tangerine, grapefruit (Citrus), kumquat (Fortunella), several ornamentals, e.g. cork tree (Phellodendron) • Family not required

  23. Pellucid dots

  24. Rutaceae: Citrus -leaves apparently simple, of 1 leaflet -ovary compound, entire or only slightly lobed -fruit a hesperidium