Philippine English in Philippine Movies: Implications of Language Use for ELT Norberto V. Casabal Lyceum of Subic Bay the Philippines SMX MALL OF ASIA, PASAY CITY Sept. 16, 2010
ENGLISH IN PHILIPPINE SOCIETY IN GENERAL English in the Philippines is a second language. We use and encounter English in our everyday lives.
Connotations of English in the Philippines Linguists: “code-switching” or “code-mixing” when a Filipino speaks in Taglish Non-linguists/Laymen: English Barokor Barok English; English Carabaoor Carabao English Phenomenal Expressions: Nose bleed and major major
ROLES OF ENGLISH IN PHILIPPINE SOCIETY TV and radiouse Filipino as their medium “to gain mass appeal,” while magazines and newspapers are predominantly in English...being generally perceived as the language of the educated and the elite” (Dayag, 2009:49-65).
English language “[is seen as a] permanent feature of [Philippine] society, and that the use of English remains so important in higher education, business and international diplomacy” (Gonzales, 2009:11).
Domains of language use: education, professional life, government administration, legislation, business, and international relations (Sibayan, 1994 in Gonzales, 2004:11).
How has globalization affected the sociology of English language in the Philippines, today? Capitalizing on English language entails economic sustainability, which is equated to global marketability. This is supported by the mushrooming call centres and other business process outsourcing (BPO) in the country.
THE PRESENT STUDY Why Kimmy Dora, the movie? 1. Social strata 2. Inclusivity and exclusivity of language use 3. Power distribution 4. Entertaining appeal
Research Questions • 1. What is the prevailing attitude of the respondents towards English language use and its users? • 2. How does English language appropriateness affect the language attitudes of the respondents? • 3. What are the implications of English language use for language teachers and for English Language Teaching (ELT) in the Philippines?
STRATEGIC COMPETENCE FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF COMMUNICATION SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE DISCOURSE COMPETENCE GRAMMATICAL COMPETENCE LINGUISTIC SYSTEM Communicative Competence adopted from Canale and Swain (1983)
METHODOLOGY Research Locale Research Instruments Lyceum of Subic Bay 26 BS in Nursing Students Ages between 17-19 Summer of 2009-2010 AY 1. uses structured-guided interview approach or a semi-structured interview 2. Structured and open-ended questionnaire 3. focus group interview Research Sampling Data Analysis Convenient sampling and purposive sampling thematic
Presentation of Data Sociolinguistic Aspects of Philippine English • 1. English language connotes power and social status.
This particular “power-language struggle” reflects the kind of socio-linguistic-economic reality that pervades in the country today. Tollefson’s (1991) argues that the use of English language in the Philippines is not so much an issue of cultural disintegration, but rather an issue of socio-economic inequalities within Philippine society. This means that access to English language in the Philippines connotes power that dichotomizes the social structure between the capable and the linguistically handicapped.
3. English language invites social stratification and social mobility. “Sociolinguistic stratification”is a form of social conditioning that stigmatizes the user due to his social status, which affects the status of the English language; usually unacceptable such as the English spoken by prostitutes.
“Sociolinguistic mobility”is a form of social conditioning, which accords the user of the English language an upward movement from his real status as a result of his acquired education manifested in the way he uses the English language; thus, also accords the user with a higher social status.
4. Philippine English creates a positive sense of identity and ownership.
THE PLACE OF PHILIPPINE ENGLISH INSIDE THE CLASSROOM 1. Accent Neutralization Whose accent should we teach inside the classroom? British, American or Filipino ? From a sociolinguistic perspective, the Philippines is multilingual in nature; each region speaks a native tongue with a distinct accent and intonation. Neutralizing their accent means gradually taking away the “essential and unique features” of their mother tongue, which gives us identity in our local context.
2. Teaching varieties of English There is a need to teach students varieties of English, as in our case, Philippine English. Increase student awareness of the features of this variety of English and encourage the use of the language that reflects our identity as Filipinos. From this perspective, students can claim ownership to the language, not of the colonizer, but the language we have colonized.
3. Code-switching and its functions Code-switching is a common language; a common ground that helps teachers and students articulate ideas where both languages reinforce each other in the quest for understanding of meaning. “Code switching is a pedagogical tool for motivating student response and action, ensuring rapport and solidarity, promoting shared meaning, checking student understanding, and maintaining the teaching narrative (Martin 2006:62).
3. Language used in the society and language teaching should reinforce each other inside the classroom Teachers should recognize the fact that learners learn the language better when there is reinforcement outside the classroom; like at home and in the community where they belong. Therefore, teachers should realize that language learning is not a solitary process of mastering codes and structures, the context should be considered that gives substance and meaning to students’ language learning experience.
4. Equality in the language classroom The teacher must be sensitive-responsive to the needs of their learners. As such, the teacher should make the classroom a bastion of democracy providing the learners equal opportunities to the language in terms of designing classroom activities. Classroom tasks should be life-like that reflect the pervading social milieu where the students can be engaged in solving problems and achieving equality through language.
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