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Biodiversity in matel rich soil

Biodiversity in matel rich soil

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Biodiversity in matel rich soil

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  1. Biodiversity in matel rich soil A. Bani1,F Thoma1,E. Skura1,G. Echevarria 2,S. Sulçe1,JL. Morel2 1 Agricultural University of Tirana, Kamez, Albania 2Laboratoire Sols et Environnment, Nancy-Université, INRA, 2 avenue de la Forêt de Haye B.P. 172 F-54505 Vandœuvre lès Nancy BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  2. Serpentine soils • Geochemically enriched soils exist • Serpentine soils are formed by the weathering of ultramafic rocks. • The ultramafic rocks ( peridotites, dunites and serpentinites), comprised less than 45% silica (SiO2), at least 70% ferromagnesian minerals. • The ultramafic rocks cover only a small portion of the earth’s land surface (<1%) ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  3. Serpentine soils • Serpentine soils are characterized; - low calcium-to-magnesium ratios - elevated levels of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cr, Fe) - deficient in essential plant nutrients - inhospitable physical conditions • Whittaker (1954) identified three collective traits: - poor plant productivity, - high rates of endemism, -vegetation types distinct from those of neighboring areas(endemics and hyperaccumulator species) ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  4. Hyperaccumulation and Phytoextraction concept • Hyperaccumulators are defined as those plants which contain in their tissue more than 1000 μg/g dry weight of Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, Pb, or more than 10,000 μg/g dry weight of Zn or Mn (Baker & Brooks 1989). • Phytoextraction is a technology that uses plants to accumulate elements from contaminated or mineralized soils and transport the metals to shoots which may be harvested to remove the elements from the field. • When phytoextraction is designed as an economic agriculture for the recovery of valuable metals in ultramafic areas, it is called "phytomining” (Li et al., 2003), • An industry exists to recycle metals from biomass -Incinerate or pyrolyze to recover ash -Hydrometallurgical process ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  5. Serpentine soils in Balkans • Ultramafic soils are widespread over the Balkans • A substantial proportion of serpentine areas are not cultivable • steep slopes, rocky soil, forest cover • Ni is present at high concentrations • Contain unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio • these areas are habitat for endemics and Ni hyperaccumulators • Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit has been used for Ni phytoextraction, (phytomining) (Li et al., 2003). ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  6. The objectives of this study were • to evaluate the biodiversity in mineralized soils across the country in order to select tolerant and hyperaccumulating species. • to understand the relationships between the Ni uptake by native species or populations of selected Ni-hyperaccumulators, and the corresponding Ni availability in ultramafic soils • to identify the most efficient Ni-hyperaccumulators plants in Ni uptake from soil. ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  7. Soil variability along the study sites ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  8. Variability of Ni availability (Ni DTPA mg kg-1) along the Albanian soils

  9. Uptake of Ni and other elements by Alyssumspecies • TC: 6.3 for A. murale (Pojska-Soil 1), and 13.9 for A. markgrafii. (Fushe-Arras)

  10. Uptake of Ni and other elements by other hyperaccumulators species ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  11. Relationship between Ni concentration in leaves of A. murale (mg kg-1) and total concentration of Ca in soils. ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  12. Conclusions • The mineralised environment has affected the biodiversity of the area • Distributions of Ni hyperacumulators depend on the biology of the species and edaphic factors. • The Ca competition and the Mg:Ca ratio of the soil solution must have a strong influence in Ni absorption, translocation and hyperaccumulation • Pojska-Soil 1,2, soil are suitable for profitable phytomining; - the available Ni is high - These soils are also Ca-deficient • The endemic A. markgrafii, some efficient populations of A. murale, display the best Ni-efficiency for use in phytomining. ___________________________________________________________________ BALWOIS 2010 - Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia - 25, 29 May 2010

  13. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION