What are we learning today? • To understand the terms – ‘Attachment’ and ‘Secure Attachment.’ • The importance of attachment in a child’s development. • That a child’s reaction to separation depends on his/her age. • That there are implications for the future if secure attachment does not occur.
Why are we Learning This? As part of this unit Emotional and Social development you will be required to produce a leaflet. You must include information describing the effects of separation on the child in the chosen age range.
What is Attachment? • Attachment is the term used to describe the bond between a baby and it’s main carer. • It is the label given to the emotional bond between children and parents • Parents bond with their baby from the moment of conception.
Attachment in Animals • The following video clip helps to explain attachment. • The ducklings follow and remain close to their mother at all times. • In nature animals follow only their mother , which prevents them from being attacked by other animals
Think about the people you have formed attachments to in your life! • Mother • Father • Grandparents • Siblings.
John Bowlby (1907-1990) • Is the leading theorist on Attachment. • He believed that family life was important to emotional development. • He believed that children needed to have a strong stable relationship with a primary carer. (Mother, Father or main person caring for them)
Bowlby said that babies need one central person who is a ‘mother figure’ • He believed that children who had been separated from their parents are more likely to suffer psychological problems later in life • Attachment is an instinct in babies, they want to be close to the adult they are attached to. • Babies and young children fear strangers.
Rhesus Monkeys. • Harlow’s 1963 research with monkeys helps to demonstrate that babies need a ‘mother like’ figure to attach to. • Infant monkeys were separated from their natural mother and placed in cages with to substitute mothers made from wire to look like real monkeys. • One wire monkey was made from wire and provided food. The other was soft, padded and covered with terry towel.
Results of experiment • The monkeys showed a preference for the soft padded monkey. • They would only go to the wire monkey for food. • The monkeys wanted a warm, comfortable object to cling to for security.
‘Secure Attachment’ • A Child will feel secure and loved by it’s parent or main care giver • Parents are the secure base from which children explore the world around them. • Parents are protectors and providers of security- they help the child to feel happy, secure and confident.
The need for a secure attachment. • Children should have all the physical, mental and emotional nourishment to develop healthily. This should be provided by nurturing and competent parents. • It is important children have attention in order to feel safe and secure • Secure attachments in childhood lead to happier and healthier attachments in the future. These attachments form a ‘blueprint’ for all other relationships. • If children are to survive into adulthood it is important they receive care and affection.
What effect does a secure attachment have on a child. • Children with a healthy attachment to a loving care giver: • Feel secure and loved • Can reach their potential • Can develop relationships with others • Develop a conscience • Cope with stress and anxiety • Became self-reliant
Activity! • In pairs to think about what is needed for an attachment to be formed between a child and caregiver. • Produce a thought shower of your ideas.
Adequate Food Shelter cuddling Eye Contact Clothing Interaction Smiles Touch Movement Familiarity Unconditional Love Play Attention Praise and encouragement Stability and security Quality time with caregiver Routines
What happens if there is no secure attachment • Children without healthy attachments with a loving caregiver. • Do not trust caregivers or adult in authority • Have problems controlling behaviours, they have had no one to guide them. • Lack ability to receive affection • Lie, steal, cheat and manipulate If attachment does not occur children may not develop the secure base necessary to support future healthy development.
What causes insecure attachments? • Abuse • Neglect • Abandonment • Multiple caregivers • Foster Care • Adoption • Maternal depression • Inconsistent day care. • Long period of hospitalisation during childhood.
Think about how you feel in a new situation. • Discuss how small children will feel in similar situations. -Worried, nervous, apprehensive, scared, will parent come back, -New situations are hard enough for adults. Small children do not know how to cope. For a small child separation can be a scary thought.
What happens when children are separated from this secure attachment figure. • Children want to stay close to their attachment figure, for security and protection. Infants become unhappy if they are separated from them. They show fear of strangers and cry if they are left by their caregiver. • Sudden change or separation can have a big impact on a small child. They are not yet able to deal with this alone.
Activity. • A child reacts to separation in different ways depending upon their age, their development and their understanding of what separation means. • Using the cards match the stage of development to the age of the child. • Hint: Under six months 2 matches, 6 months to 3 years - 4 matches, children 3-5 years- 3 matches, children 5-7 years – 2 matches.
Answers • Under 6 Months -Unlikely to show signs of distress -They will have not yet formed strong attachment with primary caregiver • 6 months- 3 Years • Most sensitive period for a child to be separated. • More likely to show signs of distress when leaving primary caregiver. • They have little or no language to express their feelings • Can cope with some separation as long as they are provided with good substitute care.
Children 3- 5 Years • Children find separation easier during this period • They have a clear concept of themselves as individuals and understand the passing of time • They can express their feelings in words and through appropriate play. • Children 5-7 Years • By this age children usually enjoy brief separation from home and carers • Show good Control of emotions. • Throughout these years children grow steadily more independent, sociable and mature