Effective Instruction in the First Grade ClassroomDay 3 Presented by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman KRESA Developed by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman Stephanie Lemmer
Setting Group Expectations • To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participation • Please allow others to listen • Please turn off cell phones and pagers • Please limit sidebar conversations • Please do not use e mail • Share “air time” • Active participation • Take care of your own needs • Attend to the “Come back together” signal
Agenda • Active Participation • Organizing your literacy block • Looking at your data • Advancing Decoding ( Alphabet Principle ) • Increasing Fluency • Teaching for Vocabulary and Comprehension • Using Learning Centers
RtIis… • The same end goals or outcomes for all students • We may need to modify our teaching : • smaller group • reteach the same concept • more time on the task I do one We do one You do one
Active Participation • READ it • WRITE it • SAY it • DO it • ALL MEANS ALL! EVERY STUDENT! EVERY TIME
Show TimeActive Participation Routines • Note the active participation procedures that are directly taught to students on your handout. • Identify other good instructional practices.
Work Time • Select a story from your basal • With a sticky note mark which Active Participation Strategies you will use throughout the week • Code: c=choral p=partner i=individual tps=think, pair, share
Let’s Talk Data • Phoneme Segmentation Fluency • Nonsense Word Fluency • Oral Reading Fluency
Work Time 1. Look at your classlist data and make sure you are progress monitoring the students that did not achieve benchmark during the winter testing period. • Sort your progress monitoring data into 2 categories. Students whose data is above the aimline and those who are not. • What should the next step be for students who are not making progress?
90” Literacy Block Whole Group Instruction Teacher Led 40 min. Small Group Instruction Teacher Led Centers Student Led Differentiated Homogeneous Flexible Differentiated Cooperative Independent, Pairs
Whole Group Instruction Grade Level Purposeful Instruction Perky Pace Active Participation
Small Group Instruction Differentiated-Skill specific Homogeneous Flexible
What is Quality Small Group Instruction? When is small group instruction delivered? • Every day during the reading block How to plan for small group instruction? • Data is used to identify skill/s to teach • Resources to teach the skill/s are identified • Groups are reorganized based on regular progress monitoring data • Classroom management system is established
What is Quality Small Group Instruction? How should lessons be designed? -Coordinated with the core program -Consistently structured -Explicit and Systematic -I Do It, We Do It, You Do It -Provides appropriate levels of scaffolding as children learn to apply new skills/strategies -Utilizes active engagement strategies -Delivered by the most highly qualified teacher
Centers • Requires a management system • Differentiated • Pre-taught • Provide direct practice • Group, pair, cooperative, individual • Academically engaging • Accountability
Center Criteria All work activities need to be aligned to instruction and focus on literacy work and are centered around the five essential components of reading instruction Even though an activity appears in your basal program’s Teacher’s Manual, it may not be powerful or appropriate for every child. ASK…. Is this activity one that will make the child read better?
M T W TH F G1HR 25 minutes 25 25 25 25 G2SR 15 10 15 10 15 G3LR 10 15 10 15 10 Teacher Plan for Small Group Instruction • 40 minutes will devoted to whole class core curriculum • 50 minutes will be devoted to small group instruction
Additional Instruction 30 minute in addition to the 90” block • Pull out program • Students in the low strategic range • Students in the intensive range • Title One teachers and paraprofessional • Walk to Read • Students in all ranges of instruction • Classroom, Title One, Specials Education and paraprofessionals
Work Time • Create a chart that shows how your block is currently set up. Include any additional supports you have. • Using your classes’ data determine which strands should be taught whole group. • For each of your small groups determine what you should teach. Select one group and layout a week’s lessons.
Alphabetic Principle Based on two parts: Alphabetic Understanding. Letters represent sounds in words Phonological Recoding. Letter sounds can be blended together and knowledge of letter -sound associations can be used to read/decode words. • What do your students do with words like ? catch slide treat boil
Sound by Sound Blending t r a i n 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. • Write t and ask what sound ? ( /t/ ) • Write r and ask what sound ? ( /r/ ) • Write ai (point with 2 fingers) and ask what sound (/ai/) • Slide finger under trai blend it ( /trai/ ) • Write n and ask what sound ? ( /n/ ) • Slide finger under train blend it ( /train/ ) • Slide finger under the word rat and ask what word ? (train)
Continuous Blending fr ow n 1. 2. 3. 4 5. • Point to the fand elongate the “sound”. • Point to ther and elongate the “sound”. • Point to the owand elongate the “sound”. • Point to the n and elongate the “sound”. • Slide finders under the whole word to blend the word.
Whole Word Blending teach Point to the letter t an say : /t/ With two fingers, point to the letters and and say: /eee/. With two fingers point to the letters ch and say : /ch/. Point just to the left of teach and say: Let’s read this word. Then quickly sweep your finger under the whole word and say teach.
Advanced Decoding Reading Multisyllabic Words Why do we need to teach advance decoding ? Many big words occur infrequently, but when they do occur they carry much of the meaning and content of what is being read. Cunningham, 1998
Reading Multisyllabic Words Grade 1 – students are reading mostly 1 & 2 syllable words Grade 2- students are reading mostly 2 & 3 syllable words Grade 3- longer multisyllabic words appear in text
Work Time • Pick the next story in your basal. • Select words where suffixes can be applied. • Write a routine that could be used to teach the suffix routine.
Oral Reading FluencyError Analysis • Process of diagnosing a child’s reading • Based on analyzing when a child reads orally • Using unfamiliar text • Record common miscues
Common Reading Errors • Substitutions I see the word. I see the worm. • Omissions She went school. She went to school • Insertions She saw a scary cat. She saw a cat.
Common Reading Errors • Self Corrects He went to tent…town. He went to town. • Repetitions He had a beach ball, a beach ball He had a beach ball. • 3 second rule/ Told I like his …… ( 3 sec.) T I like his kindness.
What type of errors? • Is it a single error pattern or does it cut across multiple word attack skills? • Can you address the errors informally or do you need a more formal intervention program?
Error Analysis Sheet Actual Student Error Error Error Error Other Word Response sight wordCVC(e) letter com. pre/suffix multisyl. what when √ pine pin √ bead bed √ want wanted √ kitten kite √
Connected Text error patterns: • Missing prefixes, suffixes or endings • Trouble decoding larger and/or multi-syllable words • Difficulty with articles (a, the, an) • Confusion of the “wh” or “th” words. • Skipping words • Adding words • Substituting words • Letter-sound correspondence errors • Blending errors
Work Time • Look at the students’ Progress Monitoring that were below the aim line. • Choose one child’s booklet. Analyze the errors. You may need to use more than one selection in order to have enough reading to analysis. • Share with your partner. • With your partner plan a change in instruction for this child.
Fluency • Combines rate and ______________ • Requires ______________ • Includes reading with _____________ Fluency: reading quickly , accurately, and with expression
What the Research Says About Fluency Focus their attention on understanding the text Synchronize skills of decoding, vocabulary, and comprehension Read with speed and accuracy Interpret text and make connections between the ideas in the text • Focus attention on decoding • Alter attention to accessing the meaning of individual words • Make frequent word reading errors • Have few cognitive resources left to comprehend
Factors Effecting Fluency • Proportion of words in text that are recognized as “_____________”. Sight words include any word that readers have practiced reading sufficiently often to be read from memory.” (Ehri, 2002) 2. Speed of ____________ strategies used to determine the pronunciation of unknown words.
Providing Fluency Instruction • Teacher Modeling - echo - choral - cloze • Paired Reading -repeated readings: 3. Individual Practice
Cloze Reading Benefits • All students are reading. Lots of reading practice is occurring. • The teacher is modeling fluent reading with expression. • The technique provides good practice when all students need to be focused and the materials need to be read quickly. • It provides excellent practice for reading story problems, directions, and instructional items.
Cloze Reading Procedures • The teacher reads a little materials, then stops and has the students read the next word. • The teachers selects words that have the most meaning within a passage for the students to read. • It two words go together ( yellow bus, United States), the teacher selects the second word for student reading.
Small Group * Pose pre reading question * Tell students to read a certain amount* Ask them to reread material if they finish early (eternal review)* Monitor students’ reading. Have individuals whisper read to you.* Pose post reading question.
Silent Reading Benefits • Students can read material silently before oral reading so that they will be more accurate and confident. • Students have an opportunity to practice their decoding skills on unknown words. • All students are practicing reading . However unless good instructional procedures are used , there will be a number of “silent reading fakers”.
Silent Reading Procedures • Teacher indicates the amount to be read silently. • Realizing that there will be early finishers, the teacher directs early finishers to re-read the material silently (eternal review). • The teacher tells students that they will be whisper reading to the teacher when she touches their book or back.
Repeated ReadingRepeated reading of text is an effective ways to improve fluency. • Cold Timing one minute timing without prior practice • Hot Timing one minute timing after practicing at least 3 times Practice PracticePractice
Fluency Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice….