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Temple University – CIS Dept. CIS331– Principles of Database Systems PowerPoint Presentation
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Temple University – CIS Dept. CIS331– Principles of Database Systems

Temple University – CIS Dept. CIS331– Principles of Database Systems

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Temple University – CIS Dept. CIS331– Principles of Database Systems

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  1. Temple University – CIS Dept.CIS331– Principles of Database Systems V. Megalooikonomou Concurrency control (based on slides by C. Faloutsos at CMU and on notes by Silberchatz,Korth, and Sudarshan)

  2. General Overview • Relational model - SQL • Functional Dependencies & Normalization • Physical Design &Indexing • Query optimization • Transaction processing • concurrency control • recovery

  3. Transactions - dfn = unit of work, e.g., move $10 from savings to checking Atomicity (all or none) Consistency Isolation (as if alone) Durability recovery concurrency control

  4. Concurrency – overview why we want it? what does it mean ‘correct’ interleaving? precedence graph how to achieve correct interleavings automatically? concurrency control

  5. Problem • concurrent access to data (consider ‘lost update’ problem) • how to solve it?

  6. Lost update problem – no locks Read(N) time

  7. Solution – part 1 • locks! (most popular solution) • lock manager: grants/denies lock requests

  8. Lost update problem – with locks T1 T2 lock manager grants lock denies lock lock(N) Read(N) N=N-1 Write(N) Unlock(N) lock(N) time T2: waits grants lock to T2 Read(N) ...

  9. Locks • but, what if we all just want to read ‘N’?

  10. Solution – part 1 • Locks and their flavors • X-locks: exclusive (or write-) locks • S-locks: shared (or read-) locks • <and more ... > • compatibility matrix

  11. Solution – part 1 • transactions request locks (or upgrades) • lock manager grants or blocks requests • transactions release locks • lock manager updates lock-table

  12. Solution – part 1 • A transaction is granted a lock on an item if the requested lock is compatible with locks already held on the item • Any number of transactions can hold shared locks on an item • If any transaction holds an exclusive on the item no other transaction may hold any lock on the item • If a lock cannot be granted, the requesting transaction is made to wait till all incompatible locks held by other transactions have been released

  13. Solution – part 2 locks are not enough – e.g., ‘inconsistent analysis’

  14. ‘Inconsistent analysis’ time Precedence graph?

  15. ‘Inconsistent analysis’ – w/ locks time T1 L(A) Read(A) ... U(A) T2 L(A) .... L(B) .... the problem remains! Solution??

  16. General solution: • Protocol(s) • A locking protocol is a set of rules followed by all transactions while requesting and releasing locks. Locking protocols restrict the set of possible schedules. • Most popular protocol: 2 Phase Locking (2PL)

  17. 2PL (2 Phase Locking ) • Phase 1: Growing Phase • transaction may obtain locks • transaction may not release locks • Phase 2: Shrinking Phase • transaction may release locks • transaction may not obtain locks • The protocol assures serializability • The transactions can be serialized in the order of their lock points (i.e. the point where a transaction acquired its final lock)

  18. 2PL X-lock version: transactions issue no lock requests, after the first ‘unlock’ THEOREM: if all transactions obey 2PL  all schedules are serializable

  19. 2PL – example ‘inconsistent analysis’ – why not 2PL? how would it be under 2PL?

  20. 2PL – X/S lock version transactions issue no lock/upgrade request, after the first unlock/downgrade In general: ‘growing’ and ‘shrinking’ phase

  21. 2PL – observations • limits concurrency • may lead to deadlocks • 2PLC (keep locks until ‘commit’) • strict two-phase locking. Here a transaction must hold all its exclusive locks till it commits/aborts. • Rigorous two-phase locking is even stricter: here all locks are held till commit/abort.

  22. Concurrency – overview what does it mean ‘correct’ interleaving? precedence graph how to achieve correct interleavings automatically?  concurrency control locks + protocols 2PL, 2PLC graph protocols multiple granularity locks <cc without locks: optimistic cc>

  23. Other protocols than 2-PL – graph-based • Assumption: we have prior knowledge about the order in which data items will be accessed • (hierarchical) ordering on the data items, like, e.g., pages of a B-tree A C B

  24. Other protocols than 2-PL – graph-based • Graph-based protocols are an alternative to 2PL • Impose a partial ordering  on the set D = {d1, d2 ,..., dh} of all data items • If di dj then any transaction accessing both di and dj must access di before accessing dj. • Implies that the set D may now be viewed as a directed acyclic graph, called a database graph. • The tree-protocol is a simple kind of graph protocol

  25. E.g., tree protocol (X-lock version) • an xact can request any item, on its first lock request • from then on, it can only request items for which it holds the parent lock • it can release locks at any time • it can NOT request an item twice

  26. Tree protocol - example A • 2PL? • follows tree protocol? • ‘correct’? T1 T2 L(B) L(D) L(H) U(D) L(E) U(E) L(D) U(B) U(H) L(G) U(D) U(G) B C D E F G H I

  27. Tree protocol • equivalent to 2PL? • deadlocks? • Pros and cons

  28. Tree protocol • The tree protocol ensures conflict serializability and no deadlocks • Unlocking may occur earlier in the tree-locking protocol than in the two-phase locking protocol • shorter waiting times, increase in concurrency • protocol is deadlock-free, no rollbacks are required • the abort of a transaction can still lead to cascading rollbacks • However, in the tree-locking protocol, a transaction may have to lock data items that it does not access • increased locking overhead, and additional waiting time • potential decrease in concurrency • Schedules not possible under two-phase locking are possible under tree protocol, and vice versa

  29. More protocols • lock granularity – field? record? page? table? • Pros and cons? • (Ideally, each transaction should obtain a few locks)

  30. Multiple granularity DB • Example: Table1 Table2 record1 record2 record-n attr2 attr1 attr1

  31. Multiple granularity • Allows data items to be of various sizes • Defines a hierarchy of data granularities • Can be represented graphically as a tree (but don't confuse with tree-locking protocol) • When a transaction locks a node in the tree explicitly, it implicitly locks all the node's descendents in the same mode • Locking granularity (level in tree where locking is done): • fine granularity (lower in tree) • high concurrency, high locking overhead • coarse granularity (higher in tree) • low locking overhead, low concurrency

  32. What types of locks? • X/S locks for leaf level + • ‘intent’ locks, for higher levels • IS: intent to obtain S-lock underneath • IX: intent to obtain X-lock underneath • S: shared lock for this level • X: ex- lock for this level • SIX: shared lock here; + IX

  33. Protocol • each xact obtains appropriate lock at highest level • proceeds to desirable lower levels • intention locks allow a higher level node to be locked in S or X mode without having to check all descendent nodes.

  34. Protocol • Transaction Ti can lock a node Q, using the following rules: 1. The lock compatibility matrix must be observed. 2. The root of the tree must be locked first, and may be locked in any mode. 3. A node Q can be locked by Ti in S or IS mode only if the parent of Q is currently locked by Ti in either IX or IS mode. 4. A node Q can be locked by Ti in X, SIX, or IX mode only if the parent of Q is currently locked by Ti in either IX or SIX mode. 5. Ti can lock a node only if it has not previously unlocked any node (that is, Tiis two-phase). 6. Tican unlock a node Q only if none of the children of Q are currently locked by Ti. • Observe that locks are acquired in root-to-leaf order, whereas they are released in leaf-to-root order.

  35. Compatibility matrix

  36. Conclusions • ‘ACID’ for transactions • concurrency: • serializability (precedence graph) • one (popular) solution: locks + • 2PL(C) protocol • graph protocols; multiple granularity