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Connecting Science

Connecting Science

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Connecting Science

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  1. Connecting Science Theory connects to technology - industry – commerce – power Technology applied to travel - application of science to travel, collection of data, and health Theories apply in new Worlds http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cWz9MrHskk and, Britain ascendant

  2. Looking further: geopolitical posturing commerce scientific query“... farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go.” James Cook (1728-79) the Endeavour The Endeavour

  3. Three Voyages (1768-80) • the Admiralty and the Royal Society sponsored jointly a scientific voyage to observe the transit of the planet Venus from Tahiti • search for the believed to be ‘great southern continent’, Terra Australis Incognita (looked for since the 16C) • Scientists, artists, and chronometers – to determine longitude • charted north pacific, killed in Hawaii

  4. Consequences • study ‘natives’ → uneasy relationships and misunderstanding broke local customs bought venereal disease, alcohol and guns • new standards → extent and accuracy of his surveys natural history astronomy oceanography philology and much else new disciplines of ethnology/anthropology • protected crew → cleanliness and ventilation cress, sauerkraut, orange extract exacting science

  5. Making the south pacific white Why convicts? Why transportation? Why Australia?

  6. Transportation • Many more men than women • Property crimes >> personal injury • Political prisoners • All trades represented [including architects] necessary to build a colony • Terrible corporal punishment

  7. The ‘real’ Australiawasn’t empty 400+ indigine groups 250 languages evidence to 40 000 BCE + 1/3 to 9/10 deaths Residential School history 1967 enumeration to vote

  8. North American Populations

  9. The Formation of Multicultural Societies • Gender imbalance Europeans, Afro-Americans male not celibate relationships with native women Casta paintings Attrib. José de Alcíbar, “De Español y Negra, Mulato”, ca. 1760-1770, Mexico. • Mestizo (mixed) societies formed • people of Spanish and native parentage • descendants of Spaniards and African slaves (“mulattoes”) • descendants of African slaves and natives (“zambos”)

  10. The Social Hierarchy Race-based hierarchy • Top: peninsulares • Criollos(creoles) • Mestizos, mulattoes, zambos, other combinations of parentage • Bottom: slaves, conquered peoples

  11. North American Societies • higher ratio of French, English female migrants than in South America • social stigma attached to relationships with natives, African slaves • fur traders have relationships with North American native women métis Gabriel Dumont (1836-1906) Red River Rebellion (NW) 1885

  12. The Hacienda • large estates produce products of European origin • wheat, grapes, meat • Encomienda system of utilizing native labor force rampant abuses 1520-1540 replaced by debt patronage peasants repay loans with cheap labor

  13. Sugar and Slavery in Portuguese Brazil • Sugar mill: engenho • sugarcane to molasses, or refined to sugar for export • low profit margins • unlike Spanish system of forced native labor, Portuguese rely on imported African slaves • natives continually evaded Portuguese forces • large-scale importing of slaves begins 1580s • working conditions poor: 5-10% die annually • approximately one human life per ton of sugar

  14. Resistances • Rebellion Taos, New Mexico • 1680 Pueblo Revolt • 1780 TúpacAmaru rebellion • half-hearted work • retreat into mountains and forests quilambo maroon communities • Legal appeal to Spanish crown • 1,200 page letter of GuamanPoma de Ayala, 1615 • Revolution Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture(1743-1803)

  15. Classification: species humankind Carl Linneaus (1707-78) Homoafricanus americanus asiaticus europeans monstrous

  16. Conclusion ‘Science’ enables increased connections Starts to be used to make sense of nature of contact Self and other at home Self and other away Always under negotiation ‘Republic of letters’ means revolutionary ideas exchanged into the Atlantic and beyond, and there, race/ethnic difference inscribed on class issues from Europe