Nursing Success Chapter 11-12
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Eat right! • Variety • Healthy weight • Low fat/cholesterol • Vegetables, fruits & whole grains • Moderate sugar • Moderate salt • Moderate alcohol
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Avoid Obesity • Overweight • “Having increased body weight in relation to height; the weight cane come from either fat or muscle mass” • Obese • “Having excessive body fat in relation to lean body mass”
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • 61% of women Obese or Overweight • 67% of men • Between 1960 and 2000 the # of obese people in the US doubled. • 30%
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Obesity • Adult onset diabetes • Coronary heart disease • High blood pressure • Stroke • Cancer • 2nd leading cause of preventable death!
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Avoid obesity • Target your ideal weight • Make small but effective changes • Make smart choices • Plan your meals • Identify “emotional triggers” for your eating • Get help • Set reasonable goals
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Exercise • Enhances general health • Increased energy • Stress management • Exercise Brain Endorphins positive and calming effect
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Types of Exercise • Cardiovascular training • Stretch training • Flexibility training
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Cross training • “Alternating types of exercise and combining elements from different types of exercise”
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Make Exercise a priority • Walk to class / use the stairs • Use school’s fitness center • Play recreational sports • Home exercise equipment • Social + exercise
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • SLEEP • 8-9 hrs • Sleep deprivation • Decreased ability to concentrate • Increased stress levels • Increased irritability • Increased susceptibility to illness • Auto accidents
University of Chicago Medical Center October 23, 1999 The Lancet. • “Chronic sleep loss can reduce the capacity of even young adults to perform basic metabolic functions, such as processing and storing carbohydrates or regulating hormone secretion… Cutting back from the standard eight down to four hours of sleep each night produced striking changes in glucose tolerance and endocrine function--changes that resembled the effects of advanced age or the early stages of diabetes--after less than one week.”
How to sleep better: Keep a regular sleep schedule • Set a regular bedtime • Wake up at the same time every day • Nap to make up for lost sleep • Be smart about napping • Fight after-dinner drowsiness
How to sleep better: Make your bedroom more sleep friendly • Keep noise down • White noise • Keep room dark and cool • Comfortable bed • Pillow • Blanket • No TV, Computers, Clocks
How to sleep better: Create a relaxing bedtime • Turn of the TV • Reserve bed for sleep and sex • Bedtime ritual
How to sleep better: Eat right and get regular exercise • Stay away from big meals at night • Avoid alcohol before bed • Cut down on caffeine • Avoid drinking too many liquids in the evening • Quit smoking • Light snack before bedtime • Exercise early
How to sleep better: Get anxiety and stress in check • Relaxation techniques • Deep breathing • Progressive muscle relaxation • Visual a peaceful restful place
How to sleep better: Ways to get back to sleep • Stay out of your head • Make relaxation your goal, not sleep • Do a quiet, non-stimulating activity • Postpone worrying and brainstorming
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Immunizations • Meningococcal meningitis vaccine
Meningitis • Pathophysiology • Meningitis • Infection/ inflammation of the meninges
Meningitis Pathophysiology • Meningitis • Infection • Immune response • Swelling/edema
Meningitis The most common bacterial pathogens are: • Haemonphili influenzai • Affected kids < 5 yrs • H influenzae vaccine (Hib) • Streptococcus pneumoniae • Affects age 19-59 • Neisseria meningitides • Easily transmitted to others • Least lethal
Meningitis • The viral type of meningitis is usually • Self limiting • Benign • Bacterial meningitis is potentially • Fatal
Meningitis Clinical manifestations • N. Meningitidis • Rash • Petechial • Purpuric lesion • Ecchymosis
Meningitis Clinical manifestations • Infants/young children • Seizures • High-pitched cry • Bulging fontanels
Meningitis Treatment • Broad spectrum antibiotics • Penicillin • Cephalosporin's • Intrathecally • Early intervention crucial!
Meningitis Nursing interventions • Isolation • Assessment
Meningitis Nursing management • I-ICP protocol • I&O • Quiet environment: Dark • Limit visitors • Nutrition • No constipation • Pad side rails • Emotional support • Alkalosis
Meningitis Prevention • Haemonphilus vaccine • HiB • meningococcal conjugate vaccine • persons aged 11 to 55 years. • designed to offer protection against four serogroups of Neisseriameningitidis(A, C, Y, W-135), which account for approximately 70 percent of cases in the United States.
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Immunizations • Meningococcal meningitis vaccine • HPV (woman) • Human papillomavirus
Cancer of the Cervix Pathophysiology • Predominantly Squamous cell cancer • Age 30 – 45
Cancer of the Cervix • Risk factors • Multiple sex partners • Early age at first coitus • Sex with men whose partner have had cervical cancer • Human papillomavius virus - HPV • STD • Causes warty growths • Smoking
Cancer of the CervixClinical Manifestations • Early • Asymptomatic • Late symptoms • Discharge • h • Watery • Dark • Foul-smelling
Cancer of the CervixClinical Manifestations • Late symptoms • Irregular bleeding • Leg pain • Dysuria • Rectal bleeding • Edema of extremities
Cancer of the Cervix • Advanced disease should not occur if all women have access to gynecologic care or avail themselves of it.
Cancer of the Cervix Assessment and diagnostic findings • Pap smear • x-ray • Colposcopy • Biopsy
Cancer of the Cervix Medical management • CRYOTHERAPY • Surgery • Hysterectomy • recurrence is 35% • Radiation
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Immunizations • Meningococcal meningitis vaccine • HPV (woman) • Human papillomavirus • Hepatitis B • Hepatitis A
Hepatitis • Inflammation of the liver • Glycogen storage • Protein synthesis • Digestion • Decomposition of red blood cells.
Hepatitis A • You can catch hepatitis A if: • You eat or drink food or water that has been contaminated by feces containing the hepatitis A virus • You come in contact with the stool or blood of a person who currently has the disease • A person with hepatitis A does not wash his or her hands properly after going to the bathroom and touches other objects or food • You participate in sexual practices that involve oral-anal contact
Hepatitis A • Symptoms • Dark urine • Fatigue • Itching • Loss of appetite • Low grade fever • Nausea & vomiting • Pale stools • Yellow skin
Hepatitis A vaccine • It is a killed, or inactivated vaccine. This means it is made from smaller pieces of the whole hepatitis A virus. After you get the vaccine, your body learns to attack hepatitis A if you are exposed to it. • This means you are very unlikely to get sick with hepatitis A. Because no vaccine is 100% effective, however, it is still possible to get hepatitis A after you have been completely vaccinated. • The vaccine is given as a shot in your arm. You need two vaccinations to make sure you are completely protected against the disease. After receiving the first vaccination, children and adults should have a booster vaccination in 6 to 12 months. • You should be protected against the disease within 2 - 4 weeks after getting the first dose.
Hepatitis B • Hepatitis B infection can be spread through having contact with the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and other body fluids of someone who already has a hepatitis B infection. • Blood transfusions • Direct contact with blood in health care settings • Sexual contact with an infected person • Tattoo or acupuncture with unclean needles or instruments • Shared needles during drug use • Shared personal items (such as toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers) with an infected person • The hepatitis B virus can be passed to an infant during childbirth if the mother is infected.
Hepatitis B • Symptoms • Asymptomatic • Appetite loss • Fatigue • Fever, low-grade • Muscle and joint aches • Nausea and vomiting • Yellow skin and dark urine
Hepatitis B Vaccine • Made from a part of the hepatitis B virus. • This vaccine series gives long-term protection from HBV infection • Three doses are generally required to complete the hepatitis B vaccine series • First Injection - At any given time • Second Injection - At least one month after the first dose • Third Injection - Six months after the first dose
How can you maintain a healthy body and mind? • Immunizations • Meningococcal meningitis vaccine • HPV (woman) • Human papillomavirus • Hepatitis B • Hepatitis A • Chicken Pox
Varicella / Herpes Zoster Pathophysiology • Virus • Mode of transmission • Airborne • Contact • Incubation period • 2 weeks
Varicella / Herpes Zoster Pathophysiology • Exposure • Prodromal stage • General malaise • No rash • Contagious!
Varicella / Herpes Zoster • Rash stage • CHICKEN POX’s • Vesicular & pustular • Spread rapidly • New lesions for 2-3 days
Varicella / Herpes Zoster • Scab stage • Lesion begin to dry • No new lesion • lesions crusted • Not contagious