DINAMIKA RACUN LINGKUNGAN DI DALAM EKOSISTEM Oleh Sudrajat Dosen FMIPA, Fak.Kedokteran, Fak,Kesmas, Pasca Sarjana Ilmu Lingkungan dan Staf Peneliti PPLH Universitas Mulawarman Samarinda 2005
Xenobiotik : Merupakan bahan asing bagi tubuh makhluk hidup, antara lain adalah racun. Di alam banyak sekali racun, termasuk polutan-polutan kimia dari pabrik, kendaraan dan lainnya. Zat kimia / xenobiotik akan mengalami transportasi ke berbagai kompartemen lingkungan atau transformasi apabila terdapat zat yang dapat bereaksi dengannya membentuk senyawa lain.
PRINSIP-PRINSIP DASAR DI DALAM PEMAJANAN RACUN - ABSORPSI , - DISTRIBUSI, - METABOLISME&- ELIMINASI
lead asbestos UV radiation ? ? ? pesticides ? ozone & toxics ? ? ? ? PM ? biologicals indoor mercury air PEMAJANAN RACUN-RACUN YANG UMUM DI SEKITAR KITA
Kasus Bhopal • December 3-4, 1984: 40 tonnes of methyl iso-cyanate (MIC) released from Union Carbide plant at Bhopal • Accidental release caused by leakage of water into MIC storage tank • None of the six safety systems worked • Safety standards and maintenance system ignored for months • Complete absence of community information and emergency procedures • Public alarm system operated after the gas had leaked for nearly four hours
Industrial disaster “Industrial disasters are caused by chemical, chemical, mechanical, civil, electrical, or other process failures due to accident, negligence or incompetence, in an industrial plant which may spill over to the areas outside the plant causing damage to life and property.”
Chemical disaster “Chemical disasters are occurrence of emission, fire or explosion involving one or more hazardous chemicals in the course of industrial activity or storage or transportation or due to natural events leading to serious effects inside or outside the installation likely to cause loss of life and property including adverse effects on the environment.”
Major industrial disasters that shaped public policy • Triangle Factory Fire New York (USA) 1911 100 garment workers died in fire • Minamata Mercury Disaster (Japan) 1932-68 3,000 people suffered, severe mercury poisoning symptoms, deformities or death • Seveso Dioxin Disaster (Italy) 1976 3,000 animals died, 70,000 slaughtered to prevent dioxins entering food chain • Bhopal Gas Disaster (India) 1984 15,000 killed, over 500,000 affected
Bhopal Gas Tragedy • Worst industrial disaster in history • 2,000 people died on immediate aftermath • Another 13,000 died in next fifteen years • 10-15 persons dying every month • 520,000 diagnosed chemicals in blood causing different health complications • 120,000 people still suffering from • Cancer • Tuberculosis • Partial or complete blindness, • Post traumatic stress disorders, • Menstrual irregularities • Rise in spontaneous abortion and stillbirth
Second generation effect • ICMR, IMA, AMA studies show • Children born with genetic defects • Growth retardation in boys • Hormonal chaos among girls • Ground water contamination with high level of mercury, lead, nickel, VOCs and HCH • High prevalence of skin and gastro-intestinal diseases • Bioaccumulation of toxins found in vegetables and breast milk
Chisso Corporation • Chisso = nitrogen • Produced fertilizer • 1907: Chisso Corp. builds a fertilizer plant in the Minamata. • Job openings • 1925: plant begins dumping untreated wastewater into Minamata Bay • Kills fish • Fisherman Payoffs http://www.japanfocus.org/images/592-3.jpg
Chisso Corporation • 1932: Chisso plant begins to produce acetaldehyde to be used in the production of plastic, perfume and drugs. • Acetaldehyde is made from acetylene and water with a mercury catalyst. • After WWII plastic production boomed and Chisso Corp. grew. • By 1970: Chisso brought Japan 60% of its income and owned nearly 70% of the land in Minamata. http://www-personal.umich.edu/~tobin/Smith2.jpg
Bizarre Behavior in Animals • Early 1950’s: • Dead fish wash ashore • Crows fall out of sky • Suicidal dancing cats • Mercury moves up the food chain. http://flickr.com/photos/tropicalrips/127535537/
Mid 1950’s: Behavior Seen in Humans • Behaviors witnessed: • Loss of motor control in hands • Violent tremors • Swaggered walk • Insanity • “Cat-dancing” disease • Nobody knew the cause of the epidemic. • Many hid for fear of ridicule http://www.hamline.edu/personal/amurphy01/es110/eswebsite/ProjectsSpring03/ebarker/Minamata%20Web%20Page.htm
Putting the Pieces Together • 1956: Researchers at Chisso Corp. Hospital experiment on cats with wastewater from the Chisso plant. • They warn Chisso corp. • Chisso corp. redirects the flow of wastewater to avoid being caught. • A larger geographical area contaminated. • Children born with horrifying deformities. http://www.nimd.go.jp/archives/english/tenji/a_corner/image/hasseimap.gif
Putting the Pieces Together • 1968: Government ran Public Health service traces the contamination to the MinamataChisso plant. • Government halts the production of acetaldehyde • 1972: Government publically announces Chisso Corp’s part in the Minamata epidemic and orders Chisso Corp to pay compensation to the families that were affected. http://www.icett.or.jp/lpca_jp.nsf/505b1fe895fd2a8c492567ca000d587d/e35dc782654b21d7492567ca000d8c50?OpenDocument
The Aftermath • 30-70 tons of methyl mercury was dumped into the Bay • 10,000 people affected by Minamata disease. • 3,000 died • Compensation has been given to families as recently as 1990. • Highest compensation for the disaster was just under $3,000. http://www.physorg.com/news110359851.html
Methylmercury :In the Body • Methylmercury exposure in humans is from consumption of fish, marine mammals, and crustaceans • 95% of fish-derived methylmercury is absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body • Highest in concentration in hair www.mercury.utah.gov/images/health_effects.jpg
Minamata Disease in the Nervous System Areas in red show areas typically affected by the presence of methylmercury in the system . The lesions show characteristic signs and symptoms in Minamata disease. 1. Gait disturbance, loss of balance (ataxia), speech disturbance (Dysarthria) 2. Sight disturbance of peripheral areas in the visual fields (constriction of visual fields) 3. Stereo anesthesia (Disturbance of sensation) 4. Muscle weakness, muscle cramp (disturbance of movement) 5. Hardness of hearing (hearing disturbance) 6. Disturbance of sense of pain, touch or temperature (Disturbance of sensation) National institute of Minamata Disease Archives
Symptoms of the Disease W. Eugene SmithTomoko Uemura in Her BathMinamata, 1972 • Mild • Ataxia • Muscle weakness • Narrowed field of vision • Hearing and speech damage • Severe cases cause • Insanity • Paralysis • Coma • Death
More Symptoms http://picasaweb.google.com/jazzyv0504/SAKURA#5065603192708172658 • A significant effect of Minamata is the onset of symptoms similar to those of cerebral palsy • Fetal Minamata Disease • A pregnant mother ingests toxic fish and the methylmercury concetrates inside the placenta. • Harms the fetus while the mother is relatively unaffected
These are all children with congenital (fetal) Minamata Disease due to intrauterine methyl mercury poisoning (Harda 1986).
Examples of chemicals in food, air, water linked to birth defects Cross placenta to embryo Defects of brain, nerves, heart Defects of skeleton (often limbs) Blindness, deafness Spasticity Mental retardation Defects of heart, brain Blindness, deafness Decreased fetal growth Defects of face (cleft palate/lip) Emotional & learning problems
Mercury: The Basics • Mercury (Hg) is the only metal that is liquid at room temperature. It melts at -38.9oC and boils at 356.6oC. • Mercury conducts electricity, expands uniformly with temperature and easily forms alloys with other metals (called amalgams). • For these reasons, it is used in many products found in homes and schools.
Mercury Chemistry • Mercury exists in three oxidation states: • Hg0 (elemental mercury). • Hg22+ (mercurous). • Hg2+ (mercuric). • Mercurous and mercuric form numerous inorganic and organic chemical compounds. • Organic forms of mercury, especially methyl mercury, CH3Hg(II)X, where “X” is a ligand (typically Cl- or OH-) are the most toxic forms.
Uses of Mercury • We use its unique properties to conduct electricity, measure temperature and pressure, act as a biocide, preservative and disinfectant and catalyze reactions. • It is the use of mercury in catalysis that contributed to the events in Minamata. • Other uses include batteries, pesticides, fungicides, dyes and pigments, and the scientific apparati.
Mercury in the Environment • Upwards of 70% of the mercury in the environment comes from anthropogenic sources, including: • Metal processing, waste incineration, and coal-powered plants. • Natural sources include volcanoes, natural mercury deposits, and volatilization from the ocean. • Estimates are that human sources have nearly doubled or tripled the amount of mercury in the atmosphere.
Methylmercury concentrations Reference dose 0.1g/kg bw/day 135-lb. woman: 1.5oz. Swordfish or 7 oz. tuna/week 50-lb. child: 0.5oz. Swordfish or 2.6 oz. tuna/week • Freshwater fish 0.1-0.4 ppm • Ocean fish 0.6-0.8 ppm • Predator fish > 1.0ppm • Fish in “polluted” water > 10ppm • Fish from Minamata Bay ~ 50ppm • Whale meat ~4ppm • Whale liver >1000ppm
Methylmercury poisoning Minamata Japan, 1930s-1950s
Four Major Pollution di Jepang Award winning photo of Minamata Disease victim Yokkaichi 1961 Yokkaichi today
Congenital Minamata disease;Mercury toxicity, Japan 1955 • Microcephaly • Cerebral palsy / spastic • Mental deficits • Malformation of ears,heart, skeleton, eyes Minamata Bay
Bhopal, India In Dec. 3, 1984, an explosion at the Union Carbide plant released a deadly cocktail of poison gas made up of methyl isocyanante, hydrogen cyanide, monomethyl amine, carbon monoxide and up to 20 other chemicals. 4 months later report on 1,430 deaths. By 1999, the toxic gas killed at least 16,000 according to local estimates; tens of thousands continue to suffer. This presentation is based on the text articles, Bhopal, pp. 347-352, and Chemical Safety in Developing Countries, the lessons of Bhopal, pp. 353-358
Arsenic toxicity from well waters in Bangladesh and CCA • Bangladesh may be heading for an epidemic of arsenic poisoning with an estimated 60 million regularly ingesting arsenic through drinking contaminated groundwater • Surveys of groundwater used for drinking and cooking have identified unacceptably high concentrations of arsenic in several thousand deep tube wells, Dr Karim said. Some wells contain 0.4 mg/l of arsenic, 40 times the acceptable concen BMJ. 2000 March 25; 320(7238): 826. Half of Bangladesh population at risk of arsenic poisoning
Dioxin and Chloracne • VIENNA, Austria (CNN) -- Dioxin poisoning caused the disfiguring illness afflicting Ukrainian opposition presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko, doctors at an Austrian hospital said Saturday. • Doctors said at a news conference that they suspect a "third party" administered the poison in September, possibly by putting it in Yushchenko's soup.
External to Internal environment ..a hint of integration?
PESTICIDE EXPOSURE ISSUES OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL Domestic use Pesticides in: food water soil Spillage (su do ra) Waste • Production • Farmers • Child labor • Women in reproductive age • Exterminators
II. DINAMIKA POLUTAN DI DALAM EKOSISTEM Mekanisme kerja suatu polutan/ zat terhadap suatu organ sasaran pada umumnya melewati suatu rantai reaksi yang dapat dibedakan menjadi 3 fase utama : a) Fase Eksposisi b) Fase Toksokinetik c) Fase Toksodinamik ( Lihat gambar 2.1.).
Skema dampak pencemaran polutan terhadap makhluk hidup ( dimodifikasi dari : Holdgate, 1979)
2.1). Fase Eksposisi : Merupakan ketersediaan biologis suatu polutan di lingkungan dan hal ini erat kaitannya dengan introduksi oleh manusia. Selama fase eksposisi, zat beracun dapat diubah melalui berbagai reaksi kimia/fisika menjadi senyawa yang lebih toksis atau lebih kurang toksis. Jalur intoksikasinya lewat Oral, Saluran Pernafasan dan Kulit.
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi sifat polutan tersebut adalah atmosfer, air dan biota. Transportasi dan transformasi zat/polutan di lingkungan berhubungan erat dengan sifat-sifat fisikokimia polutan; proses transportasi polutan di lingkungan dan transformasi polutan yang terjadi di lingkungan. Pemaparan bahan polutan ke lingkungan akan mengalami berbagai proses transformasi tergantung atas media transportasinya antara lain air, udara, tanah dan biota ( Connel Des. W . and Gregory J. Miller, 1984).
Gb. Interaksi xenobiotik dengan berbagai faktor di lingkungan ( Sumber : McKinney, 1981).
2.1.2.Media Transpor • Media transpor dapat berupa : • Udara • Air • Tanah • Makanan • Organisme • Rantai Makanan • Dll
2.1.3. PERILAKU POLUTAN DI LINGKUNGAN • Dipengaruhi oleh kompartemen penyusun bumi yakni : • Udara • Air • Tanah • Biota • Sifat-sifat kimiawi dan mekanisme yang mengatur bentuk penyebaran polutan di dalam kompartemen dan di antara kompartemen penyusun lingkungan tersebut merupakan hal yang penting untuk dikaji. • Aspek-aspek tersebut antara lain : LAJU PERPINDAHAN ZAT KIMIA DAN ENERGI DI DALAM ALAM DAN PROSES PENYEBERANGAN POLUTAN TSB ANTAR KOMPARTEMEN