Basic areas: - defining risk management - objectives of risk management - the risk management process - personal risk management program
A systematic process for: • the identification and evaluation of pure loss exposures faced by an organization or individual • and for the selection and administration of the most appropriate technique for treating such exposures.
Risk management is a broader concept. Insurance is one of several methods the risk manager can use to treat loss exposures. Risk management provides for the periodic evaluation of all techniques for meeting losses, not just insurance.
1- Personal Risks 2- Property Risks 3- Liability Risks
Major personal risks include the following: Death or total disability of one or both parents and the subsequent loss of tuition support possible injury while skiing or surfing catastrophic medical bills and loss of income if Jennifer becomes seriously ill or totally disabled involuntary loss of part-time job and a subsequent reduction in total income
Major property risks include the following: Physical damage to personal property because of a fire, tornado, or other cause Theft of personal property Physical damage or theft of the sports car Theft of the trumpet which could jeopardize her position in the college band
Major liability risks include the following: Driving an automobile while under the influence of alcohol Legal liability arising out of injury to another skier or surfer Legal liability arising out of activities as a student that accidentally cause property damage or bodily injury to others
A risk management policy statement offers several advantages. Such a policy statement is necessary in order to have effective administration of the risk management program. The policy statement states the risk management objectives of the firm and company policy with respect to treatment of the loss exposures.
In addition, a risk management statement has the advantage of educating top-level executives in the firm about the risk management process. Also, the written policy statement enables the risk manager to have greater authority throughout the firm. Finally, the policy statement provides a standard for judging the risk manager's performance.
- Economy goal - Reduction of anxiety - Meet any legal obligations
Survival of the firm • Continued operation • Stability of earnings • Continued growth • Social responsibility
- Property loss exposures - Liability loss exposures - Business income loss exposures - Human resources loss exposures - Crime loss exposures - Employee benefits loss exposures - Foreign loss exposures
Major loss exposures and techniques for handling the loss exposure include the following:
Physical damage to a bus in an accident (can be handled by a commercial auto policy, by retention of part of all of the loss exposure, and by loss control activities to reduce the possibility of an accident)
Suits arising out of injuries to children in a bus accident (can be handled by a commercial auto policy, by loss control such as a defensive driving course, and by avoiding hiring drivers with poor driving records)
Suits arising out of bodily injury or property damage to other motorists or pedestrians (can be handled by a commercial auto policy, by loss control such as a defensive driving course, and by avoiding hiring drivers with poor driving records)
Physical damage losses to the three garages from natural disasters or other perils (can be handled by a commercial property insurance policy and by retention of part of the exposure by a sizable deductible)
Loss of business income if the firm is unable to operate (can be handled by business income insurance that covers the loss of business income and extra expenses that continue during the shutdown period and by loss control activities to reduce the possibility of a loss)
Workers compensation claims if a bus driver or other employees are injured in a work-related accident (can be handled by workers compensation insurance and by self-insurance)
Death or disability of a key executive (can be handled by loss control, such as an annual physical exam, and by having other employees trained to take over the duties of the key executive)
- Risk analysis questionnaires - Physical inspection - Flow charts - Financial statements - Historical loss data
- Loss frequency - Loss severity
This is important so that the various loss exposures can be ranked according to their relative importance. In addition, the relative frequency and severity of each loss exposure must be estimated so that the risk manager can select the most appropriate technique, or combination of techniques, for treating the loss exposure.
- Maximum possible loss - Maximum probable loss
The maximum possible loss is the worst loss that could possibly happen to the firm during its lifetime.
Risk control refers to techniques that reduce the frequency and severity of accidental losses.
- Avoidance - Loss control
Risk financing refers to techniques that reduce the frequency and severity of accidental losses.
Retention • (can be used if no other method of treatment is available, the worst possible loss is not serious, and losses are highly predictable)
Sources of funds to pay losses if retention is used in a risk management program include the following: Pay losses out of current cash flow. Establish a funded reserve. Borrow from a bank by arranging a credit line in advance of a loss. The company may be able to join a trade association that owns a captive insurer.