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Women as Users and Inventors

Women as Users and Inventors

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Women as Users and Inventors

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  1. Women as Users and Inventors Team Broncos Jason Burgess Celia Pazos Enrique Barajas Ileana Cruz

  2. “Tools preceded machinery. The cylindrical log or rock with which a savage woman triturates foodstuffs is a tool; so is the muller, with which grain is reduced to meal on a metate. But it is next door to a machine-that is, a contrivance in which a vertical shaft is used, fixed in the upper stone and loosely piercing the nether…the earliest form of this meal-producing machine is found in the hands of women”-Otis Mason 1984 Mothers and Daughters of Invention Autumn Stanley

  3. What is a tool? • A tool is a device that can be used to produce or achieve something, but that is not consumed in the process Jason Burgess

  4. What is a machine? • “A machine is a device that uses energy to perform some activity” Jason Burgess

  5. Elements of Machines • Wheel and Axle: A wheel is attached to a center axle, When the wheel is turned the axle turns with a shorter more powerful motion • Wedge: A wedge converts motion in one direction into a splitting motion • Gears: Gears are toothed or pegged wheels meshed together to transmit motion and force Jason Burgess

  6. Tool vs. Machine • A tool is a simple device such as a hammer used to make an activity easier. • A machine is mechanical device that uses energy to perform a process • Both tools and machines are forms of technology to make life easier. Jason Burgess

  7. Ancient Mallet The ancient mallet is a tool because it is an instrument of manual operation. Jason Burgess

  8. Medieval Catapult Catapult is a machine because of the mechanical operation utilized Jason Burgess

  9. Leonardo Da Vinci’s counting machine • In 1967 researches discovered two unknown works by Leonardo da Vinci and were labeled “Codex Matrix” • Dr. Roberto Guatelli Combined Codex Matrix with a previously deciphered codex which was labeled Codex Atlanticus and built a replica. • The replica was then displayed at an IBM convention with the following text beside it“…Leonardo's mechanism maintains a constant ratio of ten to one in each of its 13 digit-registering wheels. For each complete revolution of the first handle, the unit wheel is turned slightly to register a new digit ranging from zero to nine…” Jason Burgess

  10. Celia Pazos

  11. Women’s role in society as an influence for invention • MEN’S role- Hunter • Earliest hunters did not use tools or weapons • WOMEN’S role- gatherer • Digging stick used as a lever. Used primarily for gathering makes it a woman’s tool • Women’s place in the home led her to invent machines to make tasks easier Celia Pazos

  12. Women’s role as burden bearer led to invention of inclined plane and wedge • Burden Bearing also led to invention of parbuckle-earliest form of a pulley used to hoist bundles and load onto woman’s backs Celia Pazos

  13. The pulley was also used by Sioux women • “The woman’s device for drawing the skin covering to the top of tent poles” Celia Pazos

  14. Pottery-making exclusively a woman’s role • In Rio Azul, Guatemala a screw top ceramic jar was found (dating back to 5th century) Celia Pazos

  15. Take-over of mechanical invention occurred • For example the printing press- invention of food presses only needed to be adapted to press ink on paper and looking as far back as 4th cent BCE Sumerian women pressed images into moist clay Celia Pazos

  16. Another example is the cotton gin • Debated what role Catherine Greene had in its invention, but we do know Eli Whitney paid her royalties and once admitted her help. Celia Pazos

  17. Class Struggle- Women’s role in invention muted because their contributions to “important” machines are ignored and the machines they do invent are classified as “domestic” Celia Pazos

  18. Machines Invented by Women Enrique Barajas Beulah Louise Henry- also known as “Lady Edison” Bobbin-free sewing machine Vacuum ice cream freezer- This machine was used to make ice cream

  19. Enrique Barajas Bessie Blount- African American women inventor She was a physical therapist for soldiers during WWII. She patented a device that allowed amputees to feed themselves.

  20. Enrique Barajas Mabel MacFarren Rockewell- She helped design the power system for the Colorado River Aqueduct. Was also the only woman involved in designing and installing the power-generating machinery for Hoover Dam.

  21. Agriculture Machines Enrique Barajas • Poultry raising supplies and equipment • Incubator egg-turning device • Incubator trap • Garden tools and equipment • Lawn mower • Stock raising equipment • Automatic feeding hopper • Stock-feeding device

  22. “Laser machines” These are the ultimate electrical “machines” Mary Spaeth- invented the tunable dye laser She also invented the resonant reflector for the army. This invention has made modern supermarket check-out technology workable. Enrique Barajas

  23. Medical Machines Enrique Barajas Jesse Wright’s rocking bed for patients needing help with their breathing. Oxygen tent by Dr. Anne Chamney Mary Gibbons contribution to the prototype heart-lung machine

  24. Manufacturing Enrique Barajas Pauline Berke of Los Angeles developed a shaping machine for hot dog buns. A Japanese woman invented a doughnut machine.

  25. Office Machines Enrique Barajas Calculator Duplicating machine Signature roll for duplicating machine Alignment device for duplicating machine Stamp and label applying machine

  26. Miscellaneous/ Other Machines Enrique Barajas Voting machine by Susan Huhn Luggage carrier patented in 1978 by Deborah Ratchford. Fog-dispersing machine

  27. 19th Century Women’s Inventions • Mary Dixon Kies – 1809, invented a process for weaving straw with silk or thread. • Sarah Mather – 1845, invention of a submarine telescope and lamp. Ileana Cruz

  28. Elizabeth J. Ames Howe- invented the sewing machine. • Helene Augusta Blanchard- invented the zigzag sewing • Mary P. Carpenter- invented sewing machine needle & arm, & a fading mechanism • Eliza Alexander- invented leather-sewing machine Ileana Cruz

  29. Josephine G. Cochran- developed the Power- Moded Dishwasher • Margaret A. Wilcox- combined dish & clothes washer • Aslate, Juliet L. Ryon- invented the Soap-Grater” • Annie Rhoads- invented the “washing powder” Ileana Cruz

  30. Emma D. Mills- invented the typewriter Ileana Cruz

  31. Eris Hodson- invented the “Potato- Digger” Ileana Cruz

  32. Harriet Tracy’s- invented “Safety Elevators” Ileana Cruz

  33. Harriet A. Strong- invented a device allowing her to open windows Ileana Cruz

  34. Fire Escapes- 1892; Barbara Fox Folding Cabinet Bed- 1885; Sarah Goodes Camera- 1883; Emma Allen & Laura Girwin Coin Operated Machine- 1800’s; Clara E. Patterson Postage Stamp Vending Machine- 1891; Lizzie J, Darr Reclining Chair- 1898; Carrie E. Browers

  35. Quiz 1. What is the difference between tool and machine? 2. Name one of the earliest machines created women and influenced by their role in society. 3. Who was known as “Lady Edison”? 4. In what year was the typewriter invented? 5. List three contemporary machines invented by women.