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The Civil Rights Movements Spread

The Civil Rights Movements Spread

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The Civil Rights Movements Spread

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  1. The Civil Rights Movements Spread You get rights! You get rights! Women, Hispanics, and Natives (21.2 and 21.3) You get rights! Everyone Gets Rights!!

  2. The Women’s Rights Movement 1st Wave – focused on the right to vote 2nd Wave – focused on political, social, and economic equality (1960s and 1970s) 3rd Wave – Feminism can’t be quantified or defined

  3. Surviving the Home Life in the 1950s • Betty Friedan • The Feminine Mystique • “Is this all...?” • Educated by economically “useless” • Bored

  4. NOW! • National Organization of Women (NOW) founded by Betty Friedan in 1966 • Attacked workplace and media stereotypes • Fought for Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) • Fought for abortion and reproductive rights

  5. Radical Feminism • Some found legislation process too slow • Organized protests • Gloria Steinem – founded Ms. Magazine • Wrote expose of Playboy Clubs and the objectification of women

  6. Gloria Steinem

  7. A Backlash Feminists hated being defined by men (in sex, in marriage, in jobs) Phyllis Schlafly denounce “women’s liberation” as an attack on the home, family, and children

  8. Political Gains of the Movement • JFK led Commission on the Status of Women (1961) to examine workplace discrimination • No laws existed • Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission • Outlawed discrimination due to sex • Title VII originally put in to stop the act

  9. Title IX and Equal Credit Opportunity Act • Title IX (1972) • Created mandate for equal funding of women’s sports • Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) (1974) • Illegal to deny credit to a woman because of gender

  10. Roe v Wade (1973) • Most consequential feminist victory • Allowed for legal abortions • Norma McCorvey (defendant)

  11. Economic Gains • Percentage of women in the workforce • 30% in 1950 • 60% in 2000 • “Men’s” fields have opened to women • 2004 – 76.5% disparity in pay • The “Glass Ceiling”

  12. Latin and Hispanic Rights

  13. Legacy of the Bracero Program • Massive Deportation in 1950s • 1965 – Immigration and Nationality Act erases quotas on immigration • Flood of immigrants • Movement Begins • After WWII, Hector Garcia formed the American GI Forum on Discrimination • 1960s and 1970s • Inspired by African Americans, Hispanics unite for equal opportunities in education, jobs, salaries, voting

  14. The Cold War, Dictators, and Economics Cubans arrive after Cuba goes communist Dominicans seek asylum from politics Puerto Ricans legally come for work Mexicans come for economic opportunity

  15. Cesar Chavez • 1960s: founded the United Farm Workers Union (UFWU) to protect the rights of migrant workers • Organized strike on grapes to get better conditions • 1975 – CA gives rights to organize

  16. The Chicano Movement • Celebrated Latino history and culture • La Raza (1968) founded to reduce poverty and improve education • Brown Power • Jose Gutierrez found La RazaUnida for political power

  17. Native American Movement

  18. A History of Despair Traditionally had high rates of poverty, unemployment, and suicide Targets of discrimination

  19. Early Activism • 1961 – National Indian Youth Council formed • Inspired by African Americans • Limited to fishing rights in the Northwest • Slowly developed to take on civil rights issues

  20. The American Indian Movement (AIM) • 1968 (AIM) • Dennis Banks and George Mitchell found • Addressed urban ghettos, civil and legal rights, autonomy

  21. AIM Goes Militant 1969 – Trying to secure land rights, AIM occupies Alcatraz Island 100 Indians from 50 tribes held it until 1971

  22. The “Long March” to DC Banks and Russell Means organized march from San Francisco to DC in 1972 Briefly seized Bureau of Indian Affairs and renamed it the Native American Embassy

  23. Siege at Wounded Knee, 1973 • Building on rise of public interest of 100th anniversary of massacre • AIM took over village • Demand US gov’t look into poor reservation conditions • 2 AIM members killed by US gov’t agents • Gov’t pledges aid

  24. Political Gains of the Movement • 1975 – Indian Self Determination Act • Gave tribes greater control over resources and education on the reservations • Greater land, mineral, and water rights granted