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Teachers Apply Educational Psychology to Urban School Challenge: A Case Study in Online Peer and Expert-Novice Mentoring PowerPoint Presentation
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Teachers Apply Educational Psychology to Urban School Challenge: A Case Study in Online Peer and Expert-Novice Mentoring

Teachers Apply Educational Psychology to Urban School Challenge: A Case Study in Online Peer and Expert-Novice Mentoring

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Teachers Apply Educational Psychology to Urban School Challenge: A Case Study in Online Peer and Expert-Novice Mentoring

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  1. Teachers Apply Educational Psychology to Urban School Challenge: A Case Study in Online Peer and Expert-Novice Mentoring © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  2. Teacher Candidates and their Schools Teach For America (TFA) Teach For America's (TFA) mission is to enlist our nation's most promising future leaders in the movement to eliminate educational inequality. They accomplish this by building a diverse, highly selective national corps of outstanding recent college graduates—of all academic majors and career interests—who commit two years to teach in urban and rural public schools in our nation's lowest-income communities and become lifelong leaders for expanding educational opportunity. Sy Karlin, Ph.D., Teach for America Secondary Education Program Coordinator, National-Louis University, 2008. © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  3. The Course: Human Learning and Development in Instructional Contexts • 11 On-Line Content Modules • Biological, cognitive, and social-emotional aspects of teaching and learning in real-world elementary and secondary education classrooms • Textbook and On-Line Supplemental Video Case Studies • Designed to apply psychological principles, theory, and research to teaching in real-world classrooms • On-Line Asynchronous Teacher Candidate Postings (6 per week) • Candidates posted asynchronously to 2 questions and to at least 2 peer postings per question that emanated from module/textbook assigned readings and videos • Capstone Teacher Candidate In-Situ Observation Projects • 11 Individual projects (1 per content module; 1 teacher candidate only) • 11 collaborative projects ( 1 per content module; > 2 teacher candidates) © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  4. Benefits of On-Line Mentoring • Expands and augments on-line modular- and textbook-based information regarding knowledge and skills to be acquired by teacher candidates • Encourages high-quality instructor-to-candidate and candidate-to-candidate electronic conversations regarding course content and its real-world applications • Candidate-to-candidate electronic discussions offer multiple viewpoints, stimulate critical analysis of information, and challenge diverse intellectual stances • Instructors’ expert experience and the expert content of the on-line modules provides critical insights, guidance, and feedback to teacher candidates’ discussions and applied integrative capstone projects © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  5. Models of Peer Mentoring: Piaget • Peers are instrumental to each others’ learning because they: • Add to and/or challenge each others’ ideas and world views • Explain concepts to each other in age-appropriate and relevant language • Modify each others’ idealism about the way the world “should be” © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  6. Models of Peer Mentoring: Vygotsky • Peers are instrumental to each others’ learning because they: • Engage in arguments that help each other discover that there are several points of view about a given situation • Help each other view situations from multiple perspectives © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  7. Models of Expert-to-Novice Mentoring: Vygotsky • Experts are instrumental to novices’ learning because experts: • Share the cultural meanings that they attach to objects, events, and human experience and convey them through symbols found in language, art, mathematics, music, and literature to help novices understand how their culture interprets and responds to the world • Use the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to help novices advance their knowledge by aiming instruction just ahead of where novices are currently • Scaffold learners by correcting initial errors, but fading out support as novices become more expert © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  8. Models of Social Learning Mentoring: Bandura Bandura’s social learning theory is central to the social learning that takes place in the on-line environment. The Triadic Reciprocal Causation Model: Behavior is the result of interaction between: • Personal characteristics: Social and emotional characteristics (i.e. introversion or extroversion, anxiety level); cognitive processes; analysis; and planning. • Behavioral patterns: Self observation and evaluation styles. • Environmental factors: Social and physical environment – leadership styles, cultures, group reward patterns, peer influences. © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  9. Models of Social Learning Mentoring: Bandura THE POWER OF PERSUASIVE MODELS: Candidates learn vicariously, taking in peers’ points of view, digesting unique elements of dialogue threads and adding their own personalized perspective. Well thought-out and constructed reflection postings attracted student interactive dialogue. SELF-EFFICACY AFFECTS MOTIVATION TO CREATE: Self-Efficacy styles are demonstrated by the candidates in the course as they: • CREATE LEARNING GOALS: Master and use the modular content meaningfully and demonstrate application of skills related to this modular content. • CREATE OUTCOME EXPECTATIONS: These expectations reveal styles employed with various levels of self-efficacy (i.e., Low: “I like this idea, but I’m not sure how to implement it in my classroom yet.” vs. High: “I am going to try this idea in my classroom next week.”) Teach for America group tends to show high self-efficacy in their academic discipline. • DEMONSTRATE ATTRIBUTIONAL THEORY: Conceptualization regarding attribution of success and failure is revealed (i.e., “This student is bad.” vs. “This student has a difficult temperament, and now I have ways to work with this.”) © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  10. Peer Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions:Skills Teacher Candidates Taught Each Other Innovative ways of applying theory and research learned in the course to their specific classroom culture (e.g., single-gender classroom; dual-language speaker classroom, ethnically-diverse classroom) © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  11. Peer Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions:Skills Teacher Candidates Taught Each Other Innovative ways of applying theory and research learned in the course to their academic discipline © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  12. Peer Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions:Skills Teacher Candidates Taught Each Other Ways of adapting theory/research learned to the urban classroom environment © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  13. Peer Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions:Skills Teacher Candidates Taught Each Other Shared problem-solving of encountered classroom challenges © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  14. Peer Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions:Skills Teacher Candidates Taught Each Other Sharing of systemic programs and supports for students that are unique to an individual school that could be adopted/adapted by other schools © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  15. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions: Skills the Faculty Instructors Taught Teacher Candidates Extending candidate knowledge by offering real-world applications of a theory or research-based concept © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  16. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions: Skills the Faculty Instructors Taught Teacher Candidates Extending candidate knowledge by offering real-world applications of a theory or research-based concept © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  17. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions: Skills the Faculty Instructors Taught Teacher Candidates Extending candidate knowledge by offering additional scholarly resources © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  18. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions: Skills the Faculty Instructors Taught Teacher Candidates Deepening candidate knowledge by scaffolding extensions of current candidate knowledge and understanding © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  19. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Asynchronous Discussions: Skills the Faculty Instructors Taught Teacher Candidates Providing analogies from the faculty member’s teaching to the candidate’s teaching © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  20. Peer Mentoring in Collaborative Course Projects Module: Temperament Subject: High School Language Arts The Candidate’s Classroom Experience Candidate K describes the behavior of Student S through observations and identifies him as having a difficult temperament. After a week of collecting observational data, Candidate K realized that the “intensity of responses” and “movement around the room” are the most challenging aspects. Candidate K creates a plan to discuss these challenges with Student S to see if he is aware of them and willing to consider different behaviors. Candidate K’s plan is to meet with Student S and create a set of goals that are mutually rewarding. Student S and Candidate K will then work on implementing the goals. © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  21. Peer Mentoring in Collaborative Course Projects Module: Temperament Subject: High School Language Arts The Peer Collaborator/Mentor’s Peer Advice “You have a set of great ideas to intervene with Student S that should help. Asking him to meet with you and collectively reaching behavioral and academic goals for him to meet falls into the secondary level of intervention for PBIS. Has this happened? For that level, it is suggested that you “teach the child strategies for identifying off-task behavior.” I wonder if you could add to your intervention a specific way to teach Student S about acceptable and unacceptable behavior. I am not sure that simply meeting with him is sufficient.” The peer collaborator/mentor goes on and teaches Candidate K about Tier 1-Tier 3 PBIS interventions. They move from on line discussion to telephone discussion due to the depth of the discussion. The peer collaborator/mentor (a Special Educator) sees Student S ‘s behavior as Tier 2 or Tier 3. They discuss interventions. © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  22. Peer Mentoring in Collaborative Course Projects Module: Temperament Subject: High School Language Arts The Candidate’s Revised Classroom Prevention/Intervention Plan “I am not certain that Student S needs a Tertiary Level of intervention (new vocabulary). True, he is in danger of failing, but I do not think that danger is best addressed by an IEP. I think counseling and group therapy at the Secondary level will be sufficient to help Student S develop more positive problem solving skills. I do, however, agree that I should include a specific way to teach Student S about acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Perhaps I can have him make his own chart of what he believes falls under the heading of “acceptable” and “unacceptable” behavior in the classroom and we can go over it together, incorporating it into our compromise/ incentive program.” © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  23. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Collaborative Course Projects Module: Temperament Subject: Science The Candidate’s Classroom Experience • Candidate N says, “I have had a lot more experience working with the ‘typical’ bad student; the boy or girl who cannot stop talking in class, uses bad language, or can’t sit still…I have been trained to handle these students, but I was not prepared to take on…the Withdrawn [student]. “ • Candidate N uses the Temperament module to identify the student as Withdrawn. She collects observational data for 4 days, finding that the Withdrawn student engages in social isolation from peers in many classroom situations (e.g., puts his head down on desk, doesn’t talk in student work groups, can’t find his place in a handout, loses his place in a whole-class reading). When Candidate N talks to the student, there is no response from the student. © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  24. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Collaborative Course Projects • Module: Temperament • Subject: Science • The Faculty Instructor’s Expert Mentoring Advice: General Strategies • Candidate N can try: • Gentle movement with the student • Encouraging behavior with the student • Expecting “baby steps” from the student © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  25. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Collaborative Course Projects • Module: Temperament • Subject: Science • The Faculty Instructor’s Expert Mentoring Advice: Specific Interventions • Go up to the student’s desk • Smile • Squat down to be at eye level with the student • Keep kind eyes • Wait for a response from the student • Point out what student has been doing. Say, “This is nice—what’s your next step?” • Look into the student’s eyes with kindness, and stay there. Let the student be the first one to look away. • Compliment the student’s work • Use the “WOW Solution-Focused Classroom Strategies” (i.e., Incorporate more of what motivates this student into your curriculum) © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  26. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Collaborative Course Projects • Module: Temperament • Subject: Science The Candidate’s Revised Classroom Prevention/Intervention Plan • “I would like to get to know Student C on a deeper level so that I can better assess what kind of day he is having, and what really interests him. I know most of my other students pretty well, but because he barely talked, I realize that I don’t know him as well as the other students. I would like to incorporate more group activities as well, because I see that he performs better when working in groups, because there is more guidance.” © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  27. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Individual Course Projects Module: Peer Relations Class: High School Special Education The Candidate’s Classroom Experience Candidate G, a Special Education teacher, teaches two girls entangled in anger how to use the 5 problem solving steps during lunch periods. Both girls agree to the conversation (which shocks Candidate G) and are interested in trying the model. Candidate G engages as the mediator. The following events occur © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  28. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Individual Course Projects Module: Peer Relations Class: High School Special Education The On-Line Course Module’s Expert Advice (Instructors’ Mentoring Through Module Format) Step 1 “The Problem” and Step 2 “Feelings About the Problem:” Candidate G takes the entire first lunch period and extends discussion to the second lunch period. Candidate G is shocked that the problem extends back to grade 5 – a conflict that was never managed, generating the resentment that is the core of the interpersonal attitude problem. At the lunch meeting on day 2, girls indicate that they spent the night talking about nothing else—at home and with their friends. Many shifting attitudes are expressed at the lunch period meeting. Candidate G feels ready to move them to Step 3. © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008

  29. Expert-to-Novice Mentoring in Individual Course Projects Module: Peer Relations Class: High School Special Education The On-Line Course Module’s Expert Advice (Instructors’ Mentoring Through Module Format) Step 3 “My understanding of you:” Provides the turning point. Tearful interchange takes place between the girls as they mourn their lost friendship. Candidate G is shocked again. But extremely encouraged. She coaches herself to let the girls take as much time as they need to work this through. She gets the idea of patience and self-efficacy from Teaching with Love and Logic (Fay & Funk, 1995). Step 4 “Generating solutions” and Step 5 “Picking a mutual solution:” Happened naturally as the girls vow to talk through their differences. Candidate G reports that the girls are eating lunch together daily. They are warm friends and she is thrilled with her results. This fuels Candidate G to use the steps as a classroom problem solving strategy for the entire class. Faculty instructor asks Candidate G to observe effects and storying by peers of the change. © Marjorie Roth Leon, Ph.D. & Mary Frances Schneider, Ph.D. May 27, 2008