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Chapter 9 Microbial Ecology

Chapter 9 Microbial Ecology

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Chapter 9 Microbial Ecology

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  1. Chapter 9 Microbial Ecology

  2. Microbiological Ecology: Microbial ecology is the study of the behavior and activities of microorganisms in their natural environments.

  3. 9.1 Microorganisms in Nature Ecosystem 9.1.1 MicroorganismsinAquaticEnvironment 1. Freshwatermicroorganism (1)Oligotrophic hydromicroorganism (2)Copiotrophic hydromicroorganism 2. Marine microorganism

  4. Figure 9-1 Thiomargarita namibiensis ,the World`s Known the Largest Bacterium.[From Lansing M. Prescott et al Microbiology (fifth edition)]

  5. 9.1.2 Microorganisms in atmosphere Table 9-1 Bacterium quantity in 1M3 air in different environments (From ZhouDeqin, <Microbiology Course> ,Edition One,Page284)

  6. 9.1.3 Microorganisms in Soil Environment Bacterium quantities have a general decuple degression law per gram soil :bacteria(~108)>actinomyces(~107)>mildew(~106)>microzyne(~105)>algae(~104)>protozoan(~103)

  7. 9.1.4 Microorganism Grown inside and outside Organisms 1、Normal Microbiota of the Humans Body and Animals. 2、The Microbiota of the Plants (1) RhizosphereMicroorganisms (2)adnascent Microorganisms (3)endogenesis Microorganisms

  8. 9.2 The Relationships of Microbials and also with other Organisms 1.Neutralism 2. Mutualism (1) Mutualism between microorganisms (2) Mutualism between propagation and microorganisms 3. Symbiosis (1) Symbiosis between microorganisms (2) Plant-microorganism symbiosis (3) Animal-microorganism symbiosis

  9. Light S Chlorobium sp. Cell fundus Desulfuromonas.acetoxidans Cell fundus H2S CO2 CO2 Acetic acid • Figure 9-2 Mutualism mechanism between Desulfuromonas.acetoxidans and Chlorobium sp.

  10. Figure 9-3 Diagrammatize transverse sectionabout plant`s Endomycorrhizaeand Ectomycorrhizae

  11. spit CO2,CH4,H2… Gas from mouth Quickly reproduce in the rumen A great deal thalli was digested by the abomasum Fibrous fodder excrement Nature bacterium Organic acid,ethanol Absorb by rumen milk,beef Figure 9-4 microbial metabolize relation in milch cow’s rumen

  12. 4. Parasitism • (1) Parasitism between microorganisms • (2) Plant-Microorganism Parasitism • (3) Animal-microorganism Parasitism

  13. 5.Antagonism A B Figure 9-5 Antagonistic between Microbes(Figure A : Antagonistic bacillus antibiotic production and inhibition of growth of Verticillium dahliae; FigureB: Antagonistic, Actinomycete antibiotic production and inhibition of growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum on an agar medium)

  14. 6Predation Figture 9-6 Predatory Fungus catch Nematode(From ZhangKeqin Predatory Fungus Biology>2001)

  15. 9.3 Microbial’s effect in biogeochemical cycles 1. Carbon cycle Aerobic Anaerobic CH4 Photosyn-thesis Zymosis Alcohol,OrganicAcid,H2+CO2 CO2+H2O O2 +“CH2O” Respiraton Fossil fuel Figure 9-7 Carbon 、Hydrogen、Oxygen cycle in the nature

  16. 2. Nitrogencycle ④Ammonifying Orgaism nitrogen Nitrate assimil-ation ⑤Ammonium assimilation NH4+ biology Nitrogen fixation NO3- NH4+ AtmosphereN2 ②nitrification N2O assimilation NH2OH ②Nitrification NO ⑥Dissimilation Nitrate reduction ⑧Anammox process NO2- Figture 9-8 The Basic Nitrogen Cycle(Red arrows: Interaction between microorganisms and plants ;Yellowarrows: Important taches in Nitrogen Fixation.)

  17. 3.Sulfur Cycle Organic sulfur ②Mineralization ①Sulfate reduction ④Desulfovibrio SO42- H2S ③Sulfur oxidation S ③Sulfur oxidation ⑤Sulfer reduction Figure 9-9 The Basic Sulur Cycle(Red arrow: Reaction operate by plants and microorganisms together )

  18. 4.Phosphorus Cycle Organic Phosphorus Plants and Microorganism’s Assimilation Microbial decompose Phosphorous Acid or Dissolubility Phosphate Action of acid product microorganisms or production of Phosphorus Combined with electropositive in soil Infusibility Phosphate Figure 9-10 Microorganisms in Phosphorus Cycle

  19. 5. Iron Cycle Aerobic,Thiobacillu.Thermophilic,Sulfol-obus Unknown chemical Fe3O4 Fe3+ Fe2+ Ferribacterium limneticum, Geobacter metallireducens, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Geovibrio ferrireducens, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans Fe3O4 Aquaspirillum magnetotacticum Anaerobicpurple phootrophic bacteria Figure 9-11 The basic Iron cycle Aerobic Anaerobic

  20. 9. 4 Microorganisms and the Environment Pollution • 1. Pollution caused by microorganisms • (1)Atmosphere Pollution • (2)Aquatic Environment Pollution • (3)Terrestrial Environment Pollution (4)Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment) • (5)Pollution from microbe’ metabolize outcome

  21. Table 9-2Pathogen microbes Spread by Atmosphere and the Disease Caused by Them

  22. Table 9-3 Pathogen Microbes Enter into Water Through Dejection、Sewage

  23. Table 9-4 Several pathogenic organisms’surviving time in the soil

  24. Table 9-5 Comparation of Microbial in Oligotrophic and Eutrophic Lakes

  25. Table 9-6 May Epiphyte Toxins and it’s Production Bacterium

  26. 2. Indicater Organisms as an index of possible contamination • Current Drinking Water Standards in China:No more than 100 bacteriums in single 1ml tap water,and no more than 3 coliforms in single 1L water. When water is polluted by fecal contamination, bacterias and coliforms will increase. Commonly, Bacterias in 1ml water: 10-100, Extremely cleanly water 100-1000,cleanly water 1000-10000, not quite cleanly water 10,000-100,000, uncleanness water More than1000.000, Extremely uncleanness wate

  27. 3. Microorganisms’ Repair to Environment Contamination (1)、Principles and Applications of Microorganisms used in Waste Water Treatment • 1、General guidelines for microbiologic quality of waters : • 2、Aerobic Microbial Treatment • 3、Anaerobic Microbial Treatment • 4、Activated Sludge Treatment • 5、Membrane Filtration Technique • 6、Photosynthetic Bacteria Treatment

  28. Figure 9-12 Metallograph of the Floc formed by the zoogloea bacilli and the filamentous bacilli in Activated Sludge [From Lansing M.Prescott et al Microbiology(fifth edition)]

  29. PSB treatment No.1 Dense waste water BOD10000ml/L Unfreeze treatment Adjust pH Bacterium trough Refluence Cultivate trough Deposition pool Oxidation pool No.2 No.3 No.4 Thalli utilization Rare wasteBOD500ml/Lauound Figure 9-13 Waste Water Treatment with Photosynthetic Bacteria

  30. Input water Primary clarifiers Secondary clarifiers Activated sludge vessels Final clarifiers Output water Chlorination vessels Figure 9-14 An Aerial View of a Modern Conventional Sewage Treatment Plant.

  31. Table9-7 Major steps in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Treatment of Wastes [From Lansing M.Prescott et al Microbiology(fifth edition)]

  32. (2)Operation and Applications in dealing with Exhaust gas by Microorganisms • Microorganism filter method: A method using solid grain ,which contain microorganisms to absorb infectant in the air ,and then the microorganisms transfer them into innocuity substance. The common solid grain are soil and compost, some are biology filtrate bed or microbe filtrate box which are specialism designed.

  33. (3):Microorganisms used in treating solid castoffs, Methods and Applications • 1、 Aerobiccompost • 2 、Anaerobiccompost

  34. References [1]Bull A T,Goodfellow M,Slater J H. Annual Rev Microbiol,1992,40:219~252. [2]Amann R I,Ludwig W,Schleifer K H. Microbiol Rev,1995,59:143~169. [3]Amann R. SystAppl Microbiol,2000,23:1~8. [4]Koonin E V,Mushegian A R,GalperinY,et al. Molecular Microbiol, 1997,25:619~637. [5]Hugenholtz P,Goeble B M,Pace N R. J Bacteriol,1998,180(18):4765~4774. [6]Presciit,L M.,Harley,J P.,Klein,D A. J Microbiology,2002,421~693 [7]Jenkins.D.,Olson,Water and Wastewater Microbiology,Pergamon Press,1989 [8]Tyagi,R D.andKannar Vembu.Wastewater Treatment by Immobilized Cells.Florida:CRC Press,1990 [9]Martin,A M.,Biological Degradation of Wasters,London:Elsevier Applied Science,1991. [10]LiuZhiheng,Modern Microbiology, Science publishing company,2002 [11]YangJianxin, Microbial Ecology,Chemistry industry book concern,2004 [12]ZhouDeqin,Microbiology Tutorial(Edition One、Edition Two,Higher education publishing company,1993、2002 [13]KongFanxiang,Environment Microbilogy, Higher education,2000 [14]Shuruyong,Libo,ZhuGeyang, Common Ecology, Higher education.1993 [15]ShiJiahui,Xuyatong,ZhangShengzhang, Environment Microbilogy [16]HuJiaju,Zhouqunying, Environment Microbilogy, Higher education