The Elements Of Teaching and Learning Teachers Learners Conducive learning environment
Elements of Teaching & Learning Teacher: prime mover of the educational wheel Learners: key participants in the learning process Conducive environment: provides essential features and ingredients that could make a headway in guiding the processes and methodologies needed for smooth linkage among the three. How does each element contribute to learning?
Nature of the Learner The learner is: embodied spirit (sentient body & rational soul) body & soul exist in mutual dependence
Fundamental Equipment of the Learner Cognitive Appetitive 5 senses (see, hear, feel, taste and smell) instinct imagination (form representations of objects) memory (retain, recall & recognize past mental acts) intellect (form concepts, judgment & reason out feelings / emotion (pleasantness & unpleasantness; pain and joy) rational will (guiding force in the learner's character as to what is good and desirable))
5 DISTINGUISHING ELEMENTS OF THE LEARNER 1. Ability dictates the prospects of success in purposeful activity capacity to understand and assimilate information for own use and application Ability to learn categories • Fast • Average • Slow Mental ability • Superior • Above average • Below average
5 DISTINGUISHING ELEMENTS OF THE LEARNER 2. Aptitude innate talent or gift natural capacity to learn certain skills An early recognition of innate skills is indeed is compelling so as to not to waste such inborn learning.
5 DISTINGUISHING ELEMENTS OF THE LEARNER 3. Interests Strong attraction or appeal to particular activities Lessons that give them the chance to express their deep feelings for objects or actions will be more meaningful and easily absorbed.
5 DISTINGUISHING ELEMENTS OF THE LEARNER 4. Family / Cultural Background Students who come from different socioeconomic background manifest a wide range of behavior due to differences in upbringing practices.
Some families are: -express their preference in self discipline while other left to passively follow home regulations class participation are influenced by the home training & experiences (inactive or confident)
5 DISTINGUISHING ELEMENTS OF THE LEARNER 5. Attitudes Some attitudes Individual’s perspective and disposition Students have a unique way of thinking and reacting. Curiosity Responsibility Creativity persistence
Learners differ in their abilities, aptitudes, interests, home background values and attitudes…
Learning/Thinking Styles Mode of thinking, remembering, problem solving • Refers to preferred way an individual processes information
Learning/Thinking Styles Learning/Thinking Styles • Sensory Preferences • Global-Analytic Continuum
Sensory Preferences • Visual Learners • SEE • Must see actions and facial expression
Sensory Preferences • Visual Learners • SEE • Must see actions and facial expression
Sensory Preferences • Visual-iconic • SEE • Visual imagery
Sensory Preferences • Visual-symbolic • SEE • Abstract symbolism
Sensory Preferences • Auditory Learners • HEAR • Must hear verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through, listen to what others have to say
Sensory Preferences • Listeners • HEAR • Remember things said to them, carry mental conversations
Sensory Preferences • Talkers • HEAR • Talk and discuss, ask questions, whisper comments
Sensory Preferences • Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners • DO • Hands-on approach, exploration, learning by doing
Global-Analytic Continuum • Analytic • Left-Brain • LINEAR • Step-by-step processes of learning, see finite elements, tree seers, comfortable with details and hierarchies of information
Global-Analytic Continuum • Global • Right-Brain • NON-LINEAR • See whole pattern, forest seers, give attention to the over-all structure
LEFT BRAIN (Analytic) • RIGHT BRAIN (Global) • Successive Hemisphere Style • Verbal • Responds to word meaning • Sequential • Processes information linearly • Responds to logic • Plans ahead • Recalls people’s names • Speaks with few gestures • Punctual • Prefers formal study design • Prefers bright lights while studying • Simultaneous Hemisphere Style • Visual • Responds to tone of voice • Random • Processes information in varied order • Responds to emotion • Impulsive • Recalls people’s faces • Gestures when speaking • Less punctual • Prefers sound/music background while studying • Prefers frequent mobility while studying
Multiple Intelligences Intelligence – ability or set of abilities that allows a person to solve a problem or fashion a product that is valued in one or more cultures Howard Gardner Frames of Mind
Multiple Intelligences • Visual/ Spatial • Picture Smart • Learning visually, organizing ideas spatially, see concepts in action, see things in one’s mind to create a product or solve a problem
Multiple Intelligences • Verbal/ Linguistic • Word Smart • Learning through the spoken and written word
Multiple Intelligences • Mathematical/ Logical • Number/Logic Smart • Learning through reasoning and problem solving
Multiple Intelligences • Bodily/ Kinesthetic • Body Smart • Learning through interaction with one’s environment • “concrete experiences”
Multiple Intelligences • Musical • Music Smart • Learning through patterns, rhythms and music, identification of patterns through all the senses
Multiple Intelligences • Intrapersonal • Self Smart • Learning through feelings, values and attitudes
Multiple Intelligences • Interpersonal • People Smart • Learning through interaction with others, promotes collaboration and working cooperatively
Multiple Intelligences • Naturalist • Nature Smart • Learning through classification, categories and hierarchies, picks up on subtle differences in meaning
Multiple Intelligences • Existential • Spirit Smart • Learning by seeing the “big picture”
Multiple Intelligences Use questions of all types to stimulate various levels of thinking Provide a general overview of material to be learned Allow sufficient time for information to be processed and the integrate Set clear purposes before listening, viewing, or reading experience
Multiple Intelligences Warm up before the lesson development by using brainstorming Use multisensory means for both processing and retrieving information Use variety of review and reflection strategies to bring closure to learning Use descriptive feedback rather than simply praising
Learning/Thinking Styles • Sensing-Thinking • (Mastery Style) • Sensing-Feeling (Interpersonal Style) Sensing • Intuitive-Thinking (Understanding Style) • Intuitive-Feeling (Self-Expressive Style) Thinking Feeling Intuition
THE TEACHER “The professional teacher is the “licensed professional who possesses dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence… he/she adheres to observes and practices a set of ethical and moral principles, standards and values.” (Code of ethics of professional teachers, 1997)
Professional Attributes A professional teacher perceives himself/herself as someone who can effect change or learning (sense of efficacy) because she/he is an expert in what she/he teaches (subject matter knowledge) and in how she/he teaches (pedagogical knowledge)
Professional teacher possesses the following attributes: Control of the knowledge base of teaching and learning and use of this knowledge to guide the science and art of his/her teaching practice. Repertoire of best teaching practice and can use these to instruct children in classrooms and to work with adults in the school setting. Dispositions and skills to approach all aspects of his/her work in a reflective, collegial, and problem-solving manner View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and dispositions and skills for working towards improving his/her own teaching as well as improving schools
Personal Attributes Personality is the sum of one’s personal characteristics. It is one’s identity Personality: -weak -dynamic Teacher’s personality must be natural and genuine, that is, devoid of pretenses and artificiality. They must be consistent, true and authentic.
Some Outstanding Personal Qualities 1. Passion: compelling force that emerges from one’s inborn love for children. 2. Humor: stands for anything funny, which elicits a smile laughter or amusing reaction. 3. Values & Attitude: -Teachers are models of values. -Values connote standards, code of ethics and strong beliefs. *open-mindedness *fairness *sincerity & honesty *professionalism
Some Outstanding Personal Qualities 4. Patience: Refers to teacher’s uncomplaining nature, self-control and persistence. 5. Enthusiasm: It is synonymous to eagerness and excitement.
To facilitate learning, teacher must: be expert in his/her subject and skilled in the science and art of teaching; Have a pleasing personality and a model of values Have passion for teaching, sense of humor, patience and enthusiasm
The Learning Environment The learning environment is the place where teaching and learning can take place in the most effective and productive manner.
The Classroom Arrangement of Furniture Physical condition of the classroom Classroom proceedings Interactions
Facilitative Learning Environment It is an environment which: encourages people to be active Promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning of idea. emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning difference is good and desirable people feel they are respected People feel they are accepted Permits confrontation consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes tolerates ambiguity evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self-evaluation encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self people are encouraged to trust in themselves as well as in external sources
Learning Environment The learning environment consists of the physical, as well as the psychological environment, that surrounds the learner and that influences his/her learning. A physical environment that is clean, orderly, well-ventilated, well-lighted, spacious that allow movements, and free from unnecessary distractors is conducive to learning A non-threatening classroom atmosphere where people feel they are respected and accepted and for what they say and do is conducive atmosphere for learning.