Powered Industrial Trucks • Safety requirements relating to fire protection, design, maintenance, and use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
ANSI Standards • All new powered industrial trucks acquired and used by an employer shall meet "American National Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI B56.1-1969"
ANSI Standards • Approved trucks shall bear a label or some other identifying mark indicating approval by the testing laboratory. • American National Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI B56.1-1969
ANSI Plate • Load plate identifies the capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be displayed on the trucks. • After market attachments may not be included on the plate’s weight. • Make sure that all nameplates and markings are in place and are maintained in a legible condition.
The Physics of a Forklift • How does a typical powered industrial truck work? • IE: How does a forklift truck lift weight? • What is the stability triangle? • Which wheels are used to steer a forklift truck? • What information is contained on the forklift load plate? • Where is the fulcrum point located on forklift truck?
Powered Industrial Trucks • Are powered industrial trucks covered by OSHA? • How would I know if a particular powered industrial truck falls under the OSHA standards? (1910.178) • Are there any age limitations for driving a forklift truck?
Designations • For the purpose of this standard there are eleven different designations of industrial trucks or tractors as follows: D, DS, DY, E, ES, EE, EX, G, GS, LP, and LPS.
TYPES OF POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS • D - DIESEL • G - GASOLINE • E - ELECTRIC • L - LP GAS
DIESEL • D - STANDARD • DS - EXHAUST, ELECTRICAL, AND FUEL SYSTEMS SAFEGUARDED • DY - NO ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS & TEMP LIMITS
ELECTRIC • E - STANDARD • ES - EXHAUST, ELECTRICAL, AND FUEL SYSTEMS SAFEGUARDED • EE- ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ENCLOSED • EX-EXPLOSION PROOF
GASOLINE • G-STANDARD • GS- EXHAUST, ELECTRICAL, AND FUEL SYSTEMS SAFEGUARDED
LP GAS • LP-STANDARD • LPS- EXHAUST, ELECTRICAL, AND FUEL SYSTEMS SAFEGUARDED
SELECTION OF TRUCKS • CLASSIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENT • TYPE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PRESENT
Hazardous Environments • Class I • Locations where flammable and combustible gases, vapors are or may be present under normal operations. • Class II • Locations where combustible dusts are present. • Class III • Locations where easily ignitable fibers are present.
Flammable and Combustible Vapors • Class I Division 1 • Conditions continuously exist or periodically under operating conditions. • Division 2 • Conditions may exist due to an accident (IE: ruptured drum).
Dusts • Class II Division 1 • Conditions continuously exist or periodically under operating conditions. • Division 2 • Conditions may exist due build up of dusts in equipment or where dusts may be ignited by sparks.
Fibers • Class III Division 1 • Locations in which easily ignitable fiber materials are handled producing combustible flyings. • Division 2 • Locations where easily ignitable fiber materials are stored.
Groups • Acetylene • Hydrogen • Ethyl ether • Gasoline, acetone, etc. • Metal Dust • Carbon black, coal dust • Grain Dust • Cocoa fiber, jute, cotton fiber, etc.
Forklift Refueling • When refueling gasoline, diesel, and LPG gas, all open flames and sources of ignition must be kept away. • Fire extinguishers should be made available. • No smoking.
Batteries • Hazardous gases and fumes being evolved from the batteries • Batteries can explode under recharging conditions, acids can be splashed
Acid Hazards • A carboy tilter or siphon shall be provided for handling electrolyte. • Always add acid to the water. (A in W) • Eyewash stations • Acid neutralizing systems (Emergency showers)
Operations • Operators must be trained • No one shall be allowed to stand under a load. • When unattended, load must be lowered, controls neutralized, brakes set, truck shut off • Unattended - more than 25 feet away or out of line of vision
Safety platform • Secured to truck • Controls on the platform itself
Traveling • Right of way • Stay to the right • Slow down and blow horn at intersections where view is obstructed
Traveling • Mast shall be tilted backwards • When ascending or descending, the load goes upward. • Drive with mast down a few inches above the floor.
Wheel Stops • The brakes of highway trucks shall be set and wheel chocks placed under the rear wheels to prevent the trucks from rolling while they are boarded with powered industrial trucks.
Trains • Wheel stops or other recognized positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations.
Dockboards and Bridge Plates • Positive protection shall be provided to prevent trucks and railroad cars from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.
Steps in Loading and Unloading • The forklift Operator shall ensure: • Set brakes • Block wheels • Check flooring of trucks, trailers, railcars
Training • The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by the successful completion of the training and evaluation required under the law. • Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck, the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the training
Training Components • Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, video tape, written material), practical training (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the operator's performance in the workplace.
Training program content • Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate • List of topics required in the standard
Refresher training and evaluation • Refresher training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely
Refresher Training Required When • The operator: • has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner • has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident • has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not operating the truck safely • is assigned to drive a different type of truck • The workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck.
Maximum Length Between Training • An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator's performance shall be conducted at least once every three years.
Inspections • Once a day • Continuously - Before each shift
Walking Working Surfaces • At what fall distance do I need to protect workers on walking/working surfaces? • General Industry? • Construction Industry?
Guarding • Floor holes • Floor openings • Skylight openings • Wall openings • Wall holes • Stairways
Standard Railings • What constitutes a standard railing? • What are some of the design criteria for general industry? • Do the design criteria differ in the construction industry?
Tribology • What is tribology? • What role does friction play in slip and fall hazards? • How is slip resistance measured? • Are there any guidelines for slip resistance and walking surfaces?